The Hittites

Hittites were an ancient Anatolian people who established an empire at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC.

The Hittite language was a member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. They referred to their native land as Hatti, and to their language as Nešili (the language of Neša). The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology.

The term "Hittites" Hebrew Bible, translating חתי HTY, or בני-חת BNY-HT "Children of Heth" (Heth is a son of Kenaan). The archaeologists who discovered the Anatolian Hittites in the 19th century CE initially identified them with these Biblical Hittites. Today the identification of the Biblical peoples with either the Hattusa-based empire or the Neo-Hittite kingdoms is a matter of dispute.

The history of the Hittite civilization is known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, and from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Egypt and the Middle East.

The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, Turkey houses the richest collection of Hittite and Anatolian artifacts.

cave of Machpelah transaction Patriach burial

(Beresheet 23:10 )

Now Ephron dwelt among the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Avraham in the presence of the sons of Heth, all who entered at the gate of his city, saying,

(Beresheet 25:9 )

And his sons Yitzchak and Yishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite,

(Beresheet 26:34 )

When Esav was forty years old, he took as wives

Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and

Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite.

(Beresheet 36:2 )

Esav took his wives from the daughters of Kenaan:

Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite;

Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Ziveon the Hivite;

(Beresheet 49:29 )

Then he charged them and said to them: "I am to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,

(Beresheet 49:30 )

in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre in the land of Kenaan, which Avraham bought with the field of Ephron the Hittite as a possession for a burial place.

(Beresheet 50:13 )

For his sons carried him to the land of Kenaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, before Mamre, which Avraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite as property for a burial place.

Utterly destroy the Kenaanite various Clans

Canaan (Northwest Semitic knaʿn; Phoenician: ; biblical Hebrew: כנען / kenaan; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן / Kenáan) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East, roughly corresponding to the Levant, i.e. modern-day Yisrael, Levanon, and the western parts of Yarden and Syria.The Scripture derives the name from that of an alleged ancestor, Kenaan son of Ham.

Kenaan and the Kenaanites are mentioned some 160 times in the Hebrew Scripture, mostly in the Torah and the sefer Yehoshua and Judges. Kenaan first appears as one of Noach's grandsons, cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had "looked upon" the drunk and naked Noach; Elohim later promises Canaan's land to Avraham and eventually delivers it to the Israelites.

An ancestor called Canaan, the son of Ham and grandson of Noach (Hebrew: כְּנַעַן‎, Knaan), saying (Genesis 10:15–19):

Kenaan is the father of Sidon, his firstborn; and of the Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Girgashites, Hivites, Arkites, Sinites, Arvadites, Zemarites, and Hamathites.

Later the Kenaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Kenaan reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza, and then [inland around the Jordan Valley] toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

Tel Kabri (Hebrew: תל כברי‎) contains the remains of a Canaanite city from the Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 B.C.). The city, the most important of the cities in the Western Galilee during that period, had a palace at its center. Tel Kabri is the only Canaanite city that can be excavated in its entirety because after the city was abandoned, no other city was built over its remains. It is notable because the predominant extra-Canaanite cultural influence is Minoan; Minoan-style frescoes decorate the palace.

(Shemot 23:28 )

And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Kenaanite, and the Hittite from before you.

(Shemot 33:2 )

And I will send My Malak before you, and I will drive out the Kenaanite and the Amorite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.

 

(Shemot 34:11 )

Observe what I command you this day. Behold, I am driving out from before you the Amorite and the Kenaanite and the Hittite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.

(Devarim 20:17 )

but you shall utterly destroy them: the Hittite and the Amorite and the Kenaanite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite, just as YHVH your Elohim has commanded you,

(Yehoshua 9:1 )

And it came to pass when all the kings who were on this side of the Yarden, in the hills and in the lowland and in all the coasts of the Great Sea toward Lebanonhe Hittite, the Amorite, the Kenaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite Heard about it,

(Yehoshua 11:3 )

to the Kenaanites in the east and in the west, the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Jebusite in the mountains, and the Hivite below Hermon in the land of Mizpah.

 

(1 Shemuel 26:6 )

Then David answered, and said to Ahimelech the Hittite and to Avishai Ben Zeruyah, brother of Yoav, saying, "Who will go down with me to Shaul in the camp?" And Avishai said, "I will go down with you."

 

Uriah the Hittite (Hebrew: אוריה החתי) his name in Hebrew means "EL is my light". In addition, his status as an officer in the army and as one of David's "mighty men" would indicate acceptance within the ethnic community. was a soldier in King David’s army mentioned in the Second Sefer Shemuel. He was the husband of Bathsheba, and was murdered by order of David by having the soldiers retreat from him in battle.

(2 Shemuel 11:3 )

So David sent and inquired about the woman. And someone said, "Is this not Bathsheva, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?"

(2 Shemuel 11:6 )

Then David sent to Yoav, saying, "Send me Uriah the Hittite." And Yoav sent Uriah to David.

(2 Shemuel 11:17 )

Then the men of the city came out and fought with Yoav. And some of the people of the servants of David fell; and Uriah the Hittite died also.

 (2 Shemuel 11:21 )

Who struck  Avimelekh Ben Yerubbeshet? Was it not a woman who cast a piece of a millstone on him from the wall, so that he died in Thebez? Why did you go near the wall?'hen you shall say, 'Your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.' "

 (2 Shemuel 11:24 )

The archers shot from the wall at your servants; and some of the king's servants are dead, and your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also."

(2 Shemuel 12:9 )

Why have you despised the commandment of YHVH, to do evil in His sight? You have killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword; you have taken his wife to be your wife, and have killed him with the sword of the people of Ammon.

(2 Shemuel 12:10 )

Now therefore, the sword shall never depart from your house, because you have despised Me, and have taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be your wife.'

(2 Shemuel 23:39 )

and Uriah the Hittite: thirty-seven in all.

(1 Kings 15:5 )

because David did what was right in the eyes of YHVH, and had not turned aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, except in the matter of Uriah the Hittite.

(1 Chronicles 11:41 )

Uriah the Hittite, Zabad Ben Ahlai,

 

(Ezekiel 16:3 )

and say, 'Thus says YHVH GOD to Yerushalayim: "Your birth and your nativity are from the land of Kenaan; your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite.

(Ezekiel 16:45 )

You are your mother's daughter, loathing husband and children; and you are the sister of your sisters, who loathed their husbands and children; your mother was a Hittite and your father an Amorite.

Historical discovery of Hittites community