Ketuvim Netzarim The Besorah According to Luke Chapter 2

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The Birth of Yehoshua

(Matt 1:18-25)

2:1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Kaisar Augoustos, that all the world should be taxed.

2:2 ([And] this taxing was first made when Kurenios was governor of Syria.)

2:3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

2:4 And Yosef also went up from Galil, out of the city of Natzeret, into Yehudah, to the city of David, which is called Beit-Lechem; (because he was of the bayit and lineage of David:)

2:5 To be taxed with Miryam  his espoused wife, being great with child.

2:6 And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.

2:7 And she brought forth her firstborn Son, and wrapped Him in swaddling cloths, and laid Him in a manger, because there was no room for them in the inn.

The Shepherds and the Messengers

2:8 And in the same region there were some shepherds staying in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night.

2:9 And, behold, the Messenger of Adonay came upon them, and the glory of Master shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.

2:10 And the Messenger said to them,

"Fear not, for behold, I bring you good news of great joy that will be for all the people.

2:11 For to you is born this day in the city of David a Moshi'a, which is Mashiach Master.

2:12 And this [shall be] a sign to you; You shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.

2:13 And suddenly there was with the Messenger a multitude of the shamayim host praising Elohim, and saying,

2:14 Glory to Elohim in the highest, and on earth Shalom, good will toward men.

2:15 And it came to pass, as the Messengers were gone away from them into shamayim, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even to Beit-Lechem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which Master has made known to us.

2:16 And they came with have, and found Miryam, and Yosef, and the babe lying in a manger.

2:17 And when they had seen [it], they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.

2:18 And all they that heard [it] wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.

2:19 But Miryam kept all these things, and pondered [them] in her heart.

2:20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising Elohim for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told to them.

2:21 And when eight days were accomplished for the Brit Milah of the Child, His Name was called Yeshua (ישוע) , which was so named of the Messenger before he was conceived in the womb.

Yehoshua (ישוע) is dedicated in the Beit  Ha Mikdash

2:22 And when the days of her purification according to the Torah of Mosheh were accomplished, they brought him to Yerushalayim, to present [him] to YHVH (יהוה);

2:23 (As it is written in the Torah of Master, Every male that opens the womb shall be called Set Apart to YHVH (יהוה);

2:24 And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the Torah of Master, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.

2:25 Star-Dvd-blue.gifAnd, Hinnei, there was a man in Yerushalayim, whose name [was] Shimon; and the same man [was] just and devout,

2:26 And it was revealed to him by the Ruach HaKodesh, that he should not see death, before he had seen YHVH (יהוה)'s Moshiach.

2:27 And he came by the Ruach into Beit HaMikdash: and when the parents brought in the child Yeshua (ישוע) , to do for him after the custom of the Torah,

2:28 Then took he Him up in his arms, and Baruch Elohim, and said,


2:29 My Adon, now dismiss Your Eved in Shalom, according to Your Dvar:

2:30 Star-Dvd-blue.gif

2:31 Which You have prepared before the face of all peoples,


2:33 And Yosef and His mother marvelled at those things which were spoken of Him.

The prophecy consisted of four parts:

2:34Star-Dvd-blue.gif And Shimon blessed them, and said to Miryam His mother:


2:36 Star-Dvd-blue.gif And there was one Chanah Bat Panuel ha Naviah of the shevet (tribe) of Asher: she was advanced in age, and had lived with an husband seven years from her betulim (virginity);

2:37 And she [was] a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from Beit ha Mikdash, but served Elohim with fastings and prayers night and day.

2:38 And she coming in that instant gave thanks likewise to YHVH (יהוה), and spoke of Him to all them that looked for redemption in Yerushalayim.

The Return to Natzaret

2:39 And when they had performed all things according to the Torah of YHVH (יהוה), they returned into Galil, to their own city Natzeret.

2:40 And the Child grew and became strong in Ruach, filled with wisdom; and the grace of Elohim was upon Him.

Yehoshua Speaks with the Leaders in the Beit  Ha Mikdash

2:41 Now his parents went to Yerushalayim every year at the feast of the Pesach.

2:42 And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Yerushalayim after the custom of the feast.

2:43 And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Yeshua (ישוע) stayed behind in Yerushalayim; and Yosef and His mother did not know of this,

2:44 But thinking He was in the company, they went a day’s journey, and were seeking Him among the relatives and friends.

2:45 And when they found him not, they turned back again to Yerushalayim, seeking Him.

2:46 And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in Beit HaMikdash, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions.

2:47 And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.

2:48 And when they saw Him, they were amazed: and His mother said to Him, Beni, why have you done this to us? See, Your father and I have sought You anxiously.

2:49 And He said to them, “Why were you seeking Me? Did you not know that I had to be in the matters of My Father?”

2:50 And they understood not the saying which he spoke to them.

2:51 And he went down with them, and came to Natzeret, and was subject to them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.

2:52 And Yeshua (ישוע) increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with Elohim and man.

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Historical Background

Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c.45 BCE? - 21 CE): Roman senator, famous as governor of Syris during the time when Yehoshua was born. He was born in the neighborhood of Lanuvium, a Latin town near Rome; his family was rich but did not boast any senators or magistrates. Octavian's rise to power and his founding of the empire -he was from now on called Caesar Augusttus- offered these people many opportunities for upward social mobility. Quirinius was one of them. In 15 BCE, Augustus appointed him as governor with the rank of proconsul of a province called Crete and Cyrenaica. Here, he subjected the Nasamones, a native tribe.

Yehudah now became an autonomous part of the Roman province Syria, ruled by a prefect. Quirinius was ordered to organize the taxation of the new prefecture. Until then, taxes had been paid in kind. However, during the census which Quirinius organized, the inhabitants were required to declare their property in money.  There are no indications that the Roman money taxes were higher than the taxes they replaced, but taxes in money were more onerous than taxes in kind, because a farmer had to borrow in case of a poor harvest. Besides, any Roman coin would bear an image of the HaShemdess Roma or a legend saying that the man represented was the divine emperor: a violation of at least two of the ten commandments.

Not surprisingly, the Jewish peasants were unhappy. The high priest Joazar, however, was able to convince almost everyone to cooperate with the new authorities, since the alternative would be the return of the detested Herod Archelaus. But there remained some resistance. A Perushim named Zadok and a scribe from Galilee named Judas of Gamala said that this taxation was equivalent to the introduction of slavery, and exhorted the Jews to assert their liberty. Their program was simple: HaShem was Israel's only lord, and it was blasphemous to pay tribute to anyone else - including the Roman emperor. If they revolted, the Jews would find HaShem as their zealous helper.