Ketuvim

Iyov / איּוב

Job Chapter 1

Iyov's background; First & Second satan's assault n accusation

1, 2,

Iyov's dialogues with his 3 counselors

3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31,

Elihu's Monologue

32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37

Adonai Speaks

38, 39, 40,

Iyov's confession; His acknowledges Hashem's sovereignty n epilogue renewed blessing

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Iyov's Character

1:1 There was a man in the land of Utz (עוּץ), whose name [was] Iyov (איּו); and that man was blameless and yashar (upright), and one that yare (feared) Elohim (אלהים), and sur (shunned, cut off) rah (evil).

1:2 And there were born to him seven sons and three daughters.

1:3 His substance also was seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the men of the east.

1:4 And his sons went and feasted [in their] houses, every one his day; and sent and called for their three sisters to eat and to drink with them.

Iyov's piety

1:5 And it was so, when the days of [their] feasting were gone about, that Iyov (איּו) sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered olot (burnt offerings) [according] to the number of them all: for Iyov (איּו) said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed Elohim (אלהים) in their hearts. Thus did Iyov (איּו) continually.

Iyov accused by the adversary in Shamayim

(cp Rev 12:10)

Mystery of Hashem's permissive will

1:6 Now there was a day when Benai ha Elohim (אלהים) came to present themselves before Adonai (יהוה), and satan (שׂטן) came also among them.

1:7 And Adonai (יהוה) said to satan (שׂטן):

“From where do you come?”

Then satan (שׂטן) answered Adonai (יהוה), and said:

From going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it.

1:8 And Adonai (יהוה) said to satan (שׂטן):

“Have you considered My servant Iyov (איּו), that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears Elohim (אלהים) and shuns evil?”

1:9 Then satan (שׂטן) answered Adonai (יהוה), and said:

Does Iyov (איּו) fear Elohim (אלהים) for nothing?

1:10 Have You not made a hedge around him, around his household, and around all that he has on every side? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions have increased in the land.

1:11But now, stretch out Your hand and touch all that he has, and he will surely curse You to Your face!”

1:12 And Adonai (יהוה) said to satan (שׂטן):

Behold, all that he have [is] in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So satan (שׂטן) went forth from the presence of Adonai (יהוה).

The adversary's first assault

1:13 And there was a day when his sons and his daughters [were] eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:

1:14 And there came a messenger to Iyov (איּו), and said, The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them:

1:15 the Sheva raided them and took them away—indeed they have killed the servants with the edge of the sword; and I alone have escaped to tell you!”

1:16 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The fire of Elohim (אלהים) is fallen from heaven, and have burned up the sheep, and the na'arim (servants), and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

1:17 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, The Kasdim (כשׂדים) made out three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have carried them away, yea, and slain the na'arim (servants) with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

1:18 While he [was] yet speaking, there came also another, and said, Thy sons and thy daughters [were] eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother's house:

1:19 And, behold, there came a great wind from the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young men, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.

1:20 Then Iyov (איּו) arose, and rent his meil (mantle), and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and yi shtakhu (worshiped, ישׁתחו),

1:21 וַיֹּאמֶר֩ עָרֹ֨ם ׳יָצָתִי׳ ״יָצָ֜אתִי״ מִבֶּ֣טֶן אִמִּ֗י וְעָרֹם֙ אָשׁ֣וּב שָׁ֔מָה יְהוָ֣ה נָתַ֔ן וַיהוָ֖ה לָקָ֑ח יְהִ֛י שֵׁ֥ם יְהוָ֖ה מְבֹרָֽךְ׃:

Vayomer arom yatzati yatzati mibeten imi, ve'arom ashuv shamah, ADONAI natan, vaihvah lakach; yehi shem ADONAI mevorach.

And said, "Naked I came from my mothers's womb, And naked shall I return there. Adonai (יהוה) gave and Adonai (יהוה) has taken away; "Blessed be The Name of Adonai (יהוה).

1:22 In all this Iyov (איּו) did not sin nor charged  Elohim (אלהים) with wrong.


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42

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About Iyov - איּוב He is pictured as a wealthy nomad who is still offering sacrifice, Yaakov used him as an excellent example of patient and persistent faith (Yaakov 5:11). This sefer Iyov is a perfect illustration of True faith despite of trouble and tribulation, it is a sefer wisdom, suffering and faith, this sefer also presents many problems of man's suffering could be result man's sin, however there are occasion it is test of our faith to Hashem. We are not judge a person for the suffering he experience rather have a heart of comfort and compassion.

Sefer Iyov consists of a prose prologue and epilogue narrative framing poetic dialogues and monologues. The sections of the sefer such as the Elihu speeches and the wisdom poem of chapter 28 as late insertions, but recent trends have tended to concentrate on the sefer's underlying editorial unity. 

Prologue in two scenes, the first on earth, the second in heaven (Iyov 1–2)2. Iyov's opening monologue (Iyov 3 – seen by some midrashim as a bridge between the prologue and the dialogues and by others as the beginning of the dialogues), and three cycles of dialogues between Iyov and his three friends (Iyov chapters – the third cycle is not complete, the expected speech of Zophar being replaced by the wisdom poem of chapter 28)

First cycle

Eliphaz (Iyov 4–5) and Iyov's response (Iyov 6–7)Bildad (8) and Iyov (Iyov 9–10)Zophar (11) and Iyov (Iyov 12–14)

Second cycle

Eliphaz (15) and Iyov (Iyov 16–17)Bildad (18) and Iyov (Iyov 19)Zophar (20) and Iyov (Iyov 21)

Third cycle

Eliphaz (22) and Iyov (Iyov 23–24)Bildad (25) and Iyov (Iyov 26–27)3.

Three monologues:

A Poem to Wisdom (chapter 28, previously read as part of the speech of Iyov, now regarded by most midrashim as a separate interlude in the narrator's voice)

Iyov's closing monologue (chapters 29–31)

and Elihu's speeches (chapters 32–37)

4. Two speeches by HaShem (chapters 38:1–40:2 and 40:6–41:34, 42:7–8), with Iyov's responses 

Epilogue – Iyov's restoration (chapters 42:9–17).

There was a man in the land of Uz: This means in the land of Aram, as it is written (Beresheet 22:21): “Utz, his firstborn,” of the sons of Nahor.

Beresheet 22:21 Utz the first-born, and Buzhis brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; 

Beresheet 22:22 and Kesed, Hazo, Pildash, Yidlaph, and Bethuel.”
Iyov 1:1 There was a man in the land of Utz named Iyov.
Iyov 1:17 This one was still speaking when another came and said, “A Kasdi (Chaldean) formation of three columns made a raid on the camels and carried them off and put the boys to the sword.
Iyov 32:2 Then Elihu son of Barachel the Buzite, of the family of Ram, was angry.

Rashi commentary
in the land of Uz: 
In the land whence they take evil counsels against the Set Apart ONE, blessed be He. As it is stated (Beresheet 10:11): “Out of that land Asshur went forth.” Now what counsel did they take? “He has no right to take the upper worlds and to give us the lower world.” Instead, come to the land of Shinar, where there are many gods, concerning which it is stated: “for it is a land of graven images” (Jer. 50:38): “And let us make a tower whose top shall reach to the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves” (Beresheet 11:4). The word “name” stated here refers only to idolatry, as it is stated (Shemot 23:13): “You shall not make mention of the name of other gods.” What did the Set Apart ONE, blessed be He, do? He sat in judgment over them and stood up witnesses against them, as it is stated (Beresheet 11:5): “And HaShem came down to see the city and the tower.” Now does the Omnipresent have to come down to see? Is it not written: “The eyes of HaShem are roving to and fro throughout the entire earth” ? Rather, it is to teach a ruling to future generations, that judges may not pass judgment except with eyewitnesses account, as it is stated (Vayikra 5:1): “Having seen or known.”

Look, we regard those who persevered as blessed. You have heard of the perseverance of Iyov, and you know what the purpose of HaShem was, that HaShem is very compassionate and merciful. (Yaakov 5:11)

According to Talmud

A new king arose over Mitzrayim who did not know Yosef Ben Yaakov. And he said to his people, “Look, the Am Yisrael are much too numerous for us. Let us deal shrewdly with them, so that they may not increase; otherwise in the event of war they may join our enemies in fighting against us and rise from the ground.” (Shemot1:8-10)

The Yisraelites lived 210 years in Mitzrayim, from Yaakov coming down to Mitzrayim until Hashem bringing Yisraelites out from Mitzrayim. In the midrash Iyov lived these same 210 years. The Mitzrayim didn’t start slavery until Levi, the longest living of the Tribes of Hashem, died. Levi was 43 when he came down to Mitzrayim and Levi died at 137. The Yisraelites lived royally for 94 (137-43=94) years.

Disturbed by the dream, Paroh awoke early in the morning he summoned  Balaam Ben Beor , the great gentile prophet. Yitro, the future father-in-law of Moshe, and the third was Iyov, a man of great faith, who refused to curse HaShem despite his profound losses and suffering and also the wise men to help him interpret the dream. This well-known Rabbinical Midrash concerning the Paroh's three advisors were a prototypes of the many personages, who, throughout history, were, or will be, in a position to help or harm the Yehudits.

Bila'am Aramean, Jews hater, tempted to curse Yisrael and was distant relative of the Jews, son of Lavan - destint to be killed  the prototypical evil person who is bent on destroying the Jews at all costs. He is a prototype of Haman and many Jews haters to come. Unfortunately, this prototype has had many imitators, beginning with Amalek, and in contemporary times, Hitler and Arafat. They will do anything to harm the Yehudits, even if it results in grave suffering and destruction for themselves and their followers. Sadly Paroh heeded Bil'am advisor of killing by throwing the Hebrew babies river Nile to be eaten by crocs

Yitro the Midyan; G-d-fearer a Ger Tzedek who deeply admires the Am Yehudits, and is extremely knowledgeable about their history and their contributions. It is Yitro who tells Paroh that HaShem Al-mighty chose the Hebrew people in ancient times and took them to Him as His lot and inheritance from among all the nations on earth. Anyone who dares stretch forth his hand to harm them, will be avenged. It was Yitro who told Paroh about the many miracles that Hashem had performed for the Patriachs Avraham, Yitzchak and Yaakov, and reminded Paroh that his own grandfather, the Paroh of former years, had placed Yosef Ben Yaakov above all the princes of Mitzrayim because he recognized Yosef’s wisdom, and thereby rescued all the inhabitants of the land of Mitzrayim.  Sadly Paroh, chose to ignore Yitro’s pleas and dismissed him in disgrace. There has been very rarely models like Yitro.

Yitro was rewarded that his descendants should sit in the Chamber of Hewn Stone (in the Temple where the Sanhedrin met), as it is said: The families of the scribes that dwelt at Yavez: the Tiratites, the Shimeatites the Sukatites; these were the Kenites who came from Hamat, father of the Beit Rechav (I Chron. 2:55). The various names are understood in the sense that they were eminent midrashim. As it is written: The descendants of the Kenite, the father-in-law of Moshe, went up with the Yehudits from the City of Palms to the wilderness; and they went and settled among the people in the Negev of Arad (Softim 1:16).

Iyov Aramean fearful advisor also G_d fearing shun evil, a Ger Toshav But Yet perhaps the saddest and most complex of the advisors. Iyov chose to be for silent before Paroh and not speaking up on behalf of the wretched Hebrew slaves. Iyov, refused to intervene publicly with Paroh because Iyov was fearful lest he might be accused of dual loyalty.

And, although Iyov, were active during the generation of Ezra and NehemYah and those who went up with them from Bavel, Iyov refused to use his wealth and influence to significantly accelerate the process of settling the land of Yisrael and rebuilding the Temple. Iyov was deaf to the historic cries of the Am Yisrael. Instead, Iyov was concerned only with his own welfare. How sad it is to see how often history repeats itself. Yehudit today have their determined enemies and beloved friends. But, most of all, we have those who are too fearful to speak up on behalf of justice, truth, and morality.

A view in the Talmud says that Iyov It is for Iyov silence that HaShem subsequently punishes Iyov with his bitter afflictions for not trying to stop Paroh. A Rabbinical midrash says that Iyov was inflicted with skin inflammation of Vayikra 13:2. When a person has on the skin of his body a swelling, a rash, or a discoloration, and it develops into a scaly affection on the skin of his body, it shall be reported brought to to Aharon haKohen or to one of his Banim, the Kohanim. However, the sefer Iyov itself contains no indication of this, and to the prophet Ezekiel, HaShem refers to Iyov as a righteous man of the same calibre as Noach n Dani'el

Benai ha Elohim - thhe Jewish study bible jps describe as divine being

rented of cloths 撕裂 klothz, (keri`at beghadhim) - an expression of deep sorrow, calamity, mourning of the dead

shaving of head - shaving the head is a sign of mourning (Devarim 21:12; Iyov 1:20); ordinarily the hair was allowed to grow long, and was only cut at intervals (compare Avshalom, 2 Shemuel 14:26). if there was defilement, they were to shave the whole head (Nu 6:5,9,18 ff; compare Acts 21:24). The shaving of the beard was not permitted to the Yisraelites; they were prohibited from shaving off even "the corner of their beard" (Lev 21:5). Shaving "with a razor that is hired" is Yeshayahu's graphic figure to denote the complete devastation of Yehudah by the Assyrian army (Yeshayahu 7:20).

Substance  家產 mikneh מקנה; acquired-cattle,flocks, herds, livestock, possessions, purchased.

Na'arim 僕人 A masculine noun referring to a boy, a young man, a servant. It is used of a young person, a boy (Barasheet 19:4); one old enough to serve in battle or as a personal private force (Baraheet 14:24; 1Sa_21:2 [3]; 1Sa_30:13, 1Sa_30:17); or as a helper in the army (1 Shemuel 14:1). It is used regularly to refer to a young male eved (Barasheet 18:7; Barasheet 22:3); or an attendant to ha melekh (Est_2:2). It is written na‛arâ  several times but should be read as na‛arāh, girl, young girl (see Barasheet 24:14). plural form ne‛ārîm -  male and female persons (Rut 2:21; Iyov 1:19). A young man, a lad, a young boy was not capable of ruling a land (Ecc 10:16). It figuratively describes Yisrael in its formative early years (Hoshea 1:1).