The Youth and Judgeship of Navi Shemuel
The Anointing and Rejection of Melekh Shaul Yisrael
The Parallel lives of Shaul and David to the Death of Shaul
The Account of Shaul pursuit after David - See Map of Fugiitive-David
Death of Melekh Shaul and Yonatan
1. The youth and judgeship of Shemuel
The mother of Shemuel
1:1 Now there was a certain man of Ramatayim Tzofim ( הרמתים צופים), of Har Efrayim, and his name [was] Elkanah Ben Yeroham Ben Elihu Ben Tohu Ben Zuph, an Efrati (Ephraimite):
1:2 And he had two wives; the name of the one [was] Channah (חנּה), and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Channah (חנּה) had no children.
1:3 And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto YHWH (יהוה) Tzva'ot in Shiloh. And the two banim of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the Kohanim of YHWH (יהוה), [were] there.
1:4 And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her banim and her banot, portions:
1:5 But unto Channah (חנּה) he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Channah (חנּה): but YHWH (יהוה) had shut up her womb.
1:6 And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because YHWH (יהוה) had shut up her womb.
1:7 And [as] he did so year by year, when she went up to the beit YHWH (יהוה), so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.
1:8 Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Channah (חנּה), why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? [am] not I better to thee than ten banim?
1:9 So Channah (חנּה) rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli ha Kohen sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of YHWH (יהוה).
1:10 And she [was] in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto YHWH (יהוה), and wept sore.
1:11 And she vowed a vow, and said, O YHWH (יהוה) Tzva'ot, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto YHWH (יהוה) all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head.
1:12 And it came to pass, as she continued praying before YHWH (יהוה), that Eli marked her mouth.
1:13 Now Channah (חנּה), she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken.
1:14 And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee.
1:15 And Channah (חנּה) answered and said, No, my master, I [am] a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before YHWH (יהוה).
1:16 Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.
1:17 Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the Elohim (אלהים) of Yisrael grant [thee] thy petition that thou hast asked of him.
1:18 And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more [sad].
1:19 And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before YHWH (יהוה), and returned, and came to their bayit to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Channah (חנּה) his wife; and YHWH (יהוה) remembered her.
1:20 Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Channah (חנּה) had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Shemuel (שׁמוּאל), [saying], Because I have asked him of YHWH (יהוה).
1:21 And the man Elkanah, and all his bayit, went up to offer unto YHWH (יהוה) the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.
1:22 But Channah (חנּה) went not up; for she said unto her husband, [I will not go up] until the child be weaned, and [then] I will bring him, that he may appear before YHWH (יהוה), and there abide for ever.
1:23 And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only YHWH (יהוה) establish his word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.
1:24 And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the beit YHWH (יהוה) in Shiloh: and the child [was] young.
1:25 And they slew a bullock, and brought the child to Eli.
1:26 And she said, Oh my master, [as] thy soul liveth, my master, I [am] the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto YHWH (יהוה).
1:27 For this child I prayed; and YHWH (יהוה) hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
1:28 Therefore also I have lent him to YHWH (יהוה); as long as he liveth he shall be lent to YHWH (יהוה). And he worshipped YHWH (יהוה) there.
This book record the life of Shemuel, Yisrael's last judge, the reign and decline of melekh Sha'ul , the first king and the choice and preparation of David, Yisrael's greatest king.
This book begins in the days of the judges and describes Yisrael's transition from a theocracy which was led by Hashem to a monarchy led by earthly kings. Yisrael prospered as long as the people regarded Hashem as their true Melekh. However the people wanted like their neighbour to have an earthly king. Establishing a monarchy did not solve Yisrael's problem
Key people :
Eli, Channah, Navi Shemuel, melekh Sha'ul , Yonatan and David
Ramah Shemuel birth place and burial; Shiloh The Focal poin of Yisrael's worship was at shiloh where the tabernacle and the Ark of covenant resided; Kiriat Yearim; Mizpah; Gigal valley of Elah, wilderness of Ziph, Mount Gilboa Ziklag
Tel (mound) Beit Shemesh covers about 7 acres of a low hill, near the modern town of Beit Shemesh, some 20 km. west of Jerusalem. It overlooks the Sorek Valley, which widens here into a fertile valley.
The name Beit Shemesh (House of the Sun) is suggestive of the deity that was worshipped by the Canaanite inhabitants of the ancient city.