Neviim Akharonim: Yoel / Joel Chapter 1

1, 2, 3

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(later Prophet / Shneim Asar The Twelve)

The Devastation of Locusts

1:1 DVAR YHWH (יהוה) that came to Yoel (יואל) Ben Petuel (פתואל).

1:2 An opening appeal

Shim u-zot (שׁמעו־זאת), ha zekenim ve ha azinu (give ear), kol(all) yoshvei (inhabitants) ha Eretz (land):

He-haitazot b'yomeikhem ve im b'yomei avoteikhem:

Has such a thing as this occurred in your days or even in the days of your fathers?

1:3 Tell ye your banim it, and [let] your banim [tell] their banim, and their banim another generation.

1:4 That which the gazam (palmer-worm) hath left hath the locust eaten; and that which the locust hath left hath the yelek eaten; and that which the yelek (canker-worm) hath left hath the caterpiller eaten.

1:5 Hakitzu shikorim u ve khu ve heili lukal-shotei yayin al-asis kiy nikarat mipikhem:

Awake, ye shikorim (drunkards), and weep; and howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the sweet wine; for it is cut off from your mouth.

1:6 For a nation is come up upon my land, strong, and without number, whose teeth [are] the teeth of a lion, and he hath the cheek teeth of a great lion.

1:7 He hath laid my vine waste, and barked my fig tree: he hath made it clean bare, and cast [it] away; the branches thereof are made white.

1:8 Lament like a virgin girded with sackcloth for the husband of her youth.

1:9 The Minchah and the nesekh (drink offering) is cut off from the Beit YHWH (יהוה); the kohenim, YHWH (יהוה)'S ministers, mourn.

1:10 The field is wasted, the land mourneth; for the corn is wasted: the new wine is dried up, the oil languisheth.

1:11 Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen; howl, O ye vinedressers, for the wheat and for the barley; because the harvest of the field is perished.

1:12 The vine is dried up, and the fig tree languisheth; the pomegranate tree, the palm tree also, and the apple tree, [even] all the trees of the field, are withered: because joy is withered away from the sons of men.

1:13 Gird yourselves, and lament, ye kohenim: howl, ye ministers of the altar: come, lie all night in sackcloth, ye ministers of my Elohim (אלהים): for the Minchah and the nesekh (drink offering) is withholden from the Beit Eloheichem.

Starvation and Drought

1:14 Sanctify ye a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the zekenim [and] all the inhabitants of the land [into] the Beit YHWH (יהוה) Eloheichem, and cry unto YHWH (יהוה),

1:15 Alas for the day! for ha Yom YHWH (יהוה) [is] at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come.

1:16 Is not the okhel (food) cut off before our eyes, [yea], joy and gladness from the Beit Eloheinu?

1:17 The seed is rotten under their clods, the garners are laid desolate, the barns are broken down; for the corn is withered.

1:18 How do the beasts groan! the herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture; yea, the flocks of sheep are made desolate.

1:19 O YHWH (יהוה), to Thee will I cry: for the fire hath devoured the pastures of the wilderness, and the flame hath burned all the trees of the field.

1:20 The beasts of the field cry also unto thee: for the rivers of waters are dried up, and the fire hath devoured the pastures of the wilderness.

1, 2, 3

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The Effects of Locusts on Ancient Israelite Society and Culture

About this book is unusual prophetic book, contain oracles, announcements of misphatim against nation, and promises of an ideal future. The name Yael  or Yoel (Joel) like its inverted form Eliyahu, probably means YHWH is EL

The palmer-worm (Dichomeris ligulella; caterpillar) is occasionally responsible for widespread defoliation of hardwoods such as red, white, and chestnut oaks, basswood, cherry, and apple. The larvae skeletonize leaves and may fold or roll them during feeding. Outbreaks rarely last most than 1 or 2 years, and usually occur during unusually hot, dry springs. Although they may cause noticeable defoliation, outbreaks rarely result in permanent tree damage.

Adult moths overwinter and in spring the females lay eggs, depositing them singly on the expanding leaves. Larval feeding peaks during June; the full-grown larvae are about ½ inch long and can be identified most easily by the one narrow and two wide green stripes running down the back. Pupation takes place early in July at the final feeding site, and most adults appear by the end of July. The grayish to brownish adult moths are about 2/3 inch long, and are most conspicuous during outbreaks when large numbers are disturbed from resting sites on shrubs and small trees. There is one generation annually.

Canker-worm ( Paleacrita vernata )are caterpillars when immature and later develop into moths as adults. As immatures, they have elongate, cylindrical bodies with a well developed head capsule. In addition, they also have 3 pairs of thoracic legs. Further back on the body, they also have 2-3 pairs of abdominal legs known as prolegs. The Spring Cankerworm has 2 pairs while the Fall Cankerworm has 3 pairs.

 Gazam is used to refer to the third larval stage.