Chanukkah 是纪念公元前2世纪犹大英雄马加比反抗希腊统治者亵渎圣殿而起义，并重修圣殿的节日。据说为圣殿重新献礼的时候本来所有金灯台上的橄榄油只够燃烧一天，却 奇迹般的燃烧了8天。这就是Hanukkah要庆祝8天的由来。犹大马加比等英雄的事迹请参看《圣经后典马加比传上下》。
Why do people celebrate Hanukkah? And should we celebrate?為什麼人們慶祝光明節？我們應該慶祝呢？
In 332 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the Land of Israel. A relatively gentle ruler, Alexander allowed the Jews to continue to practice traditional Judaism, so long as they paid him tribute (i.e. taxes)
Deu 4:2 “Do not add to the Word which I command you, and do not take away from it1, so as to guard the commands of יהוה your Elohim which I am commanding you.
Deu 4:2 所吩咐你們的話，你們不可加添，也不可刪減，好叫你們遵守我所吩咐的，就是耶和華你們神的命令
21 And the male goat is the kingdom of Greece. The large horn that is between its eyes is the first (or chief) king (Alexander).
22 As for the broken horn and the four that stood up in its place, four kingdoms shall arise out of that nation, but not with its power.
Dan 8:21 那公山羊就是希利尼王（希利尼：原文作雅完；下同）；兩眼當中的大角就是頭一王。
Dan 8:22 至於那折斷了的角，在其根上又長出四角，這四角就是四國，必從這國裡興起來，只是權勢都不及他。
In 323 BCE, about nine years after he first conquered the Land of Israel, Alexander died.
His empire then broke up into four kingdoms, fulfilling the prophecy in verse 22, above.
One of these four successor kingdoms was the Seleucid Empire, which is located mainly in modern-day Syria. Next, verse 23 tells us that in the latter time of this (Seleucid) kingdom, a fierce, sinister king would arise, who would commit transgressions against the Hebrew people.
23 "And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the
transgressors have reached their fullness, a king shall arise, having
fierce features, who understands sinister schemes.
24 His power shall be mighty, but not by his own power. He shall destroy fearfully, and shall prosper and thrive. He shall destroy the mighty, and also the set-apart people.
Dan 8:23 這四國末時，犯法的人罪惡滿盈，必有一王興起，面貌兇惡，能用雙關的詐語。
Dan 8:24 他的權柄必大，卻不是因自己的能力；他必行非常的毀滅，事情順利，任意而行；又必毀滅有能力的和聖民。
Approximately a century and a half later, in 175 BCE, this prophecy was fulfilled. Antiochus Epiphanies (also called Antiochus IV) rose to power in the Seleucid Empire. Not religiously tolerant at all, Antiochus Epiphanies began to commit great atrocities against the Jewish people.
In approximately 168 BCE, Antiochus heard reports that there was a great deal of treasure stored up in the Temple. Returning from Egypt, he looted the Temple, and also slaughtered a great many of the Jews.大約一個半世紀後，在175 BCE，這個預言應驗了。安條克頓悟（也叫安條克四）上台的塞琉古帝國。沒有宗教寬容可言，安條克頓悟開始犯對猶太人民偉大的暴行。
1st Maccabees 1:20-24
20 And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned again in the hundred forty and third year, and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude.
21 And entered proudly into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof.
22 And the table of showbread, and the pouring vessels, and the vials, and the censers of gold, and the veil, and the crowns, and the golden ornaments that were before the Temple, all of which he pulled off.
23 He took also the silver and the gold, and the precious vessels: also he took the hidden treasures which he found.
24 And when he had taken all away, he went into his own land, having made a great massacre, and spoken very proudly.
Two years later, Antiochus sent tax collectors to speak peaceable words to the people, so as to plunder the city through deception. Then after collecting their taxes they massacred the Jewish people, and used the money to set up a fortress within sight of the Temple Mount, to kill anyone who brought an offering.
1 Maccabees 1:29-40
29 And after two years fully expired the king sent his chief collector of tribute unto the cities of Judah, who came unto Jerusalem with a great multitude,
30 and spake peaceable words unto them, but all was deceit: for when they had given him credence, he fell suddenly upon the city, and smote it very sore, and destroyed much people of Israel.
31 And when he had taken the spoils of the city, he set it on fire, and pulled down the houses and walls thereof on every side.
32 but the women and children they took captive, and possessed the cattle.
33 Then builded they the city of David with a great and strong wall, and mighty towers, and made it a strong hold for them.
34 And they put therein a sinful nation, wicked men, and fortified themselves therein.
35 They stored it also with armour and victuals, and when they had gathered together the spoils of Jerusalem, they laid them up there, and so they became a sore snare:
36 For it was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil adversary to Israel.
37 Thus they shed innocent blood on every side of the sanctuary, and defiled it:
38 insomuch that the inhabitants of Jerusalem fled because of them: whereupon the city was made an habitation of strangers, and became strange to those born in her; and her own children left her.
39 Her sanctuary was laid waste like a wilderness, her feasts turned into mourning, her Sabbaths into reproach, her honour into contempt.
40 As had been her glory, so was her dishonour increased, and her excellency was turned into mourning.
1 Maccabees 1:41-50
41 Moreover King Antiochus wrote to his whole kingdom, that all should be one people,
42 And every one should leave his laws: so all the heathen agreed according to the commandment of the king.
43 Yea, many also of the Israelites consented to his religion, and sacrificed unto idols, and profaned the Sabbath.
44 For the king had sent letters by messengers unto Jerusalem and the cities of Juda [Judea], that they should follow the strange laws of the land.
45 And forbid burnt offerings, and sacrifice, and drink offerings, in the temple; and that they should profane the Sabbaths and festival days:
46 And pollute the sanctuary and the holy people:
47 Set up altars, and groves, and chapels of idols, and sacrifice swine’s flesh, and unclean beasts:
48 That they should also leave their children uncircumcised, and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness and profanation:
49 To the end they might forget the Torah, and change all the ordinances.
50 And whosoever would not do according to the commandment of the king, he should die.
Between his incentives for Greek worship and penalties for YHWH worship, Antiochus was largely successful in getting many of the people to abandon the Torah.
1 Maccabees 1:51-53
51 In the selfsame manner wrote he to his whole kingdom, and appointed overseers over all the people, commanding the cities of Juda [Judea] to sacrifice, city by city.
52 Then many of the people were gathered unto them, to wit, every one that forsook the Torah; and so they committed evils in the land;
53 And drove the Israelites into secret places, even wheresoever they could flee for succour [relief].
Having courted those who had no zeal for the Torah, and persecuting YHWH’s followers, Antiochus ordered a statue of Zeus to be erected in the Temple, and he commanded pigs to be sacrificed on the altar.
1 Maccabees 1:54-59
54 Now the fifteenth day of Kislev (the ninth month), in the hundred and forty fifth year, they set up the Abomination of Desolation upon the altar, and builded idol altars throughout the cities of Judea on every side.
55 And burnt incense at the doors of their homes, and in the streets.
56 And when they had rent in pieces the books of the law which they found, they burnt them with fire.
57 And wheresoever was found with any the book of the testament, or if any consented to the law, the king’s commandment was, that they should be put to death.
58 Thus they did by their authority unto the Israelites every month, to as many as were found in the cities.
59 Now on the five and twentieth day of the month they did sacrifice upon the idol altar, which was upon the altar of [Elohim].
The situation soon became very desperate. Mothers who circumcised their children were put to death, along with their children.
1 Maccabees 1:60-63
60 At which time according to the commandment they put to death certain women, that had caused their children to be circumcised.
61 They hanged the infants about their necks, and rifled their houses, and slew them that had circumcised them.
62 Howbeit many in Israel were fully resolved and confirmed in themselves not to eat any unclean thing.
63 Wherefore they chose rather to die, that they might not be defiled with meats, and that they might not profane the holy covenant: so then they died.
Mattithyahu ben Yochanan HaCohen and his five sons rebelled against Antiochus. Although Mattithyahu died a year later (from natural causes), his son Yehudah (Judah) continued to lead the Jewish rebellion with amazing bravery. Vastly outnumbered, the Jews placed their trust in YHWH, and YHWH gave them a miraculous victory against otherwise impossible odds. As a result, Yehudah and family became known as the ‘Maccabees’ (מכבי ). This might be related to the Aramaic word for ‘hammer’, or it may be an acronym for the Jewish battle cry, “Mi Kamocha B’elim, YHWH” (who is like You among the elohim, YHWH?) (מכבי ). Either way, after the Maccabeean victory they needed to build a new altar to replace the one that had become defiled; and they also needed to re-light the Menorah, which YHWH commands to burn continually.
Vayiqra (Leviticus) 24:1-2
24:1 Then YHWH spoke to Moshe, saying:
2 "Command the children of Israel that they bring to you pure oil of pressed olives for the light, to make the lamps burn continually.
Lev 4:1 耶和華對摩西說：
Lev 4:2 「你曉諭以色列人說：若有人在耶和華所吩咐不可行的什麼事上誤犯了一件，Traditionally, it takes eight days to press and refine oil for the Menorah. While the Talmud tells us there was plenty of oil inside the Temple, it claims Antiochus’ forces had defiled most of it, such that there was only enough set-apart oil to light the Menorah for one day: yet YHWH miraculously made it burn for eight.
What is [the reason of] Hanukkah?
For our Rabbis taught:
On the twenty-fifth of Kislev
22 [commence] the days of Hanukkah, which are eight on which a lamentation for the dead and fasting are forbidden.
23 For when the Greeks entered the Temple, they defiled all the oils therein, and when the Hasmonean [Maccabean] dynasty prevailed against and defeated them, they made search and found only one cruse of oil which lay with the seal of the High Priest,
24 but which contained sufficient for one day's lighting only; yet a miracle was wrought therein and they lit [the lamp] therewith for eight days. The following year these [days] were appointed a Festival with [the recital of] Hallel
25 and thanksgiving.26
[Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shabbat, Chapter 21]
YHWH certainly has the power to make miracles, but the Talmud (written 400-700 years after the war) claims that this alleged miracle is the reason for Hanukkah; yet this alleged miracle is not recorded in the Book of Maccabees (which was written soon after the war). Rather, First Maccabees says only that the Jews cleaned up the Temple, built a new altar, and re-lit the menorah. No eight-day miracle of burning is recorded.
1 Maccabees 4:47-51
47 Then they took whole stones according to the Torah, and built a new altar according to the former,
48 And made up the sanctuary, and the things that were within the Temple, and set the courts apart.
49 They made also new set-apart vessels, and into the temple they brought the candlestick (Menorah), and the altar of burnt offerings, and of incense, and the table.
50 And upon the altar they burned incense, and the lamps that were upon the candlestick they lighted, that they might give light in the Temple.
51 Furthermore they set the loaves upon the table, and spread out the veils, and finished all the works which they had begun to make.
Had one day’s worth of oil really burned for eight days, it seems likely First Maccabees would have recorded it. Instead, First Maccabees tells us only that the re-dedication ceremony (חֲנֻכָּה , Hanukkah) lasted for eight days; and that Yehudah Maccabee commanded the people to keep this festival each year.
1 Maccabees 4:56-59
56 And so they kept the dedication of the altar eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness, and sacrificed the sacrifice of deliverance and praise.
57 They decked also the forefront of the Temple with crowns of gold, and with shields, and the gates and the chambers they renewed, and hanged doors upon them.
58 Thus was there very great gladness among the people, for that the reproach of the heathen was put away.
59 Moreover Yehudah and his brethren and the whole congregation of Israel ordained that the days of dedication of the altar should be kept in their season from year to year by the space of eight days, from the twenty-fifth day of Kislev, with mirth and gladness.1馬加比4:56-59
Because the record in Talmud is not always reliable, and because the alleged miracle of the oil is not recorded in First Maccabees, some scholars believe the reason Hanukkah was established as an eight day festival was simply because the Jews had been unable to keep the Feast of Sukkot in its proper time (because of the war). Thus it may have been that when the war ended, the Jews simply celebrated a belated eight day festival to YHWH; and then they commanded that it be observed as a festival unto YHWH forever, much like the Fourth of July is celebrated in America.
What shall we say about man-made observances, such as Hanukkah and Purim? As with Christmas and Easter, the first thing we should admit is that these festival days are not commanded by YHWH: they are commanded by men. Yet YHWH warns us very clearly not to add anything to His Instructions, so that we might live, and be preserved in safety.因為在塔木德的戰績並不總是可靠的，因為沒有記錄據稱油奇蹟首先馬加比，
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 4:1-4
1 "Now, O Israel, listen to the statutes and the judgments which I teach you to observe, that you may live, and go in and possess the land which YHWH Elohim of your fathers is giving you.
2 You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of YHWH your Elohim which I command you.
3 Your eyes have seen what YHWH did at Baal Peor; for YHWH your Elohim has destroyed from among you all the men who followed Baal of Peor.
4 But you who held fast to YHWH your Elohim are alive today, every one of you.”
Deu 4:1 「以色列人哪，現在我所教訓你們的律例典章，你們要聽從遵行，好叫你們存活，得以進入耶和華你們列祖之神所賜給你們的地，承受為業。
Deu 4:2 所吩咐你們的話，你們不可加添，也不可刪減，好叫你們遵守我所吩咐的，就是耶和華你們神的命令。
Deu 4:3 耶和華因巴力毗珥的事所行的，你們親眼看見了。凡隨從巴力毗珥的人，耶和華你們的神都從你們中間除滅了。
Deu 4:4 惟有你們專靠耶和華你們神的人，今日全都存活。
The second thing we should recognize is that, as we saw earlier in this study, whoever’s calendar we keep, that is essentially whom we worship (worth-ship). The reason we keep anyone’s calendar is because we consider that person worthy to instruct us, as to what we should do. Yet YHWH is clear that we are not to follow man’s instructions, but that we must only follow His Instructions. He tells us cery plainly not to add to His Instructions: yet Hanukkah does this very thing.
It is clear that YHWH did not instruct us to keep either Hanukkah or Purim: men did. Yet since YHWH tells us to be careful not to add anything to His Instructions, then at least in one sense, if we keep Hanukkah or Purim, are we not being disobedient to His will? And might we not even be unwittingly guilty of esteeming these men as ‘greater’ than YHWH, since we are following their instructions, rather than YHWH’s?
For a variety of reasons, Scripture indicates that men want to make up make their own festival days; but that this is never pleasing to YHWH, even when these festival days are purposed and intended to honor Him.第二點是，我們應該認識到的是，正如我們前面在這項研究中所看到的，誰的日曆，我們留著，這基本上是我們為之崇拜（價值艦） 。我們保持任何人的日曆的原因是因為我們認為這個人值得教導我們，作為我們應該做的。然而耶和華是明確的，我們不是按照人的指令，但是，我們只能跟著他的指示。他告訴我們cery顯然不是要加他的指示：尚未光明節做這事。
Yochanan (John) 10:22-23
22 Now it was the Feast of Dedication in Jerusalem, and it was winter.
23 And Yeshua walked in the temple, in Solomon's porch.
Joh 10:22 在耶路撒冷有修殿節，是冬天的時候。
Joh 10:23 耶穌在殿裡所羅門的廊下行走
However, we should be careful to note that it does not say Yeshua was celebrating the Feast of Dedication: it simply states that He was in Jerusalem at that time, probably because He had stayed on in Jerusalem after Sukkot. This is not the same thing as celebrating it, or going up to Jerusalem for Hanukkah. He might well have been there for other reasons.
Those who advocate Hanukkah tell us that Hanukkah is traditionally celebrated by lighting candles, oil lamps, or other lights; and that it was during this same general time frame (during the Feast of Hanukkah) that Yeshua told us that He was the light of the world.但是，我們應該謹慎地指出，它沒有說耶穌是慶祝修殿節：它只是指出他是在耶路撒冷，當時，可能是因為他曾住棚節之後，留在耶路撒冷。這是不一樣的東西，慶祝它，或去到耶路撒冷的光明節。他很可能已經有其他原因。
Yochanan (John) 9:5
5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world."
Joh 9:5 我在世上的時候，是世上的光。」
Yet neither of these passages prove that Yeshua either celebrated, or approved of Hanukkah. We might easily imagine Yeshua telling those who went up for the festival to look to Him, rather than to the Hanukkiah.
Then Yeshua spoke to them again, saying, "The Hanukkiah is not the light of the world, so why do you look to it? I am the light of the world (not the Hanukkiah)! He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life!"