Chat shegagah בִּשְׁגָגָֽה - Unintentional Sin

The idea of unintentional sin in Vayikra 4 is related to sin by straying or by accident. In these cases an offering could be made.
shegagah: sin of error or inadvertance ignorance, unawares, error, unwittingly
Original Word: שְׁגָגָה
Part of Speech: Noun Feminine
Transliteration: shegagah
Short Definition: unintentionally

Bamidbar 15:30  'But the person who does anything presumptuously, whether he is native-born or a stranger, that one brings reproach on Adonay, and he shall be cut off from among his people.

Bamidbar15:31  Because he has despised the word of Adonay, and has broken His commandment, that person shall be completely cut off; his guilt shall be upon him.' "

However, there was no offering available for when a person sinned intentionally. Bamidbar 15:30–31 states, “Anyone who sins defiantly, whether native-born or foreigner, blasphemes Adonay and must be cut off from Benai Yisrael. Because they have despised Adonay’s word and broken his commands, they must surely be cut off; their guilt remains on them.” Those who rebelled dispise the Word of Adonay in committing intentional sin were to be cut off or separated from the people.

Bamidbar 15:16  One Torah and one misphat shall be for you and for the stranger who dwells with you.' "

Bamidbar 15:29  You shall have one Torah for him who sins unintentionally, for him who is native-born among Benai Yisrael and for the stranger who dwells among them.

Bamidbar 35:15  These six cities shall be for refuge for Benai Yisrael, for the stranger, and for the sojourner among them, that anyone who kills a person Shegagah (accidentally) may flee there.

Yehoshua 20:3 kills person unintentionally without premeditation


 Vayikra 4:1-35

Bamidbar 15:22-23

1 Now Adonay spoke to Mosheh, saying,

2 "Speak to the Benai Yisrael, saying: 'If a person sins unintentionally against any of the commandments of Adonay in anything which ought not to be done, and does any of them,

3 if the anointed kohen sins, bringing guilt on the people, then let him offer to Adonay for his sin which he has sinned a young bull without blemish as a sin offering.

4 He shall bring the bull to the door of the tabernacle of meeting before Adonay, lay his hand on the bull's head, and kill the bull before Adonay.

5 Then the anointed kohen shall take some of the bull's blood and bring it to the tabernacle of meeting.

6 The kohen shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle some of the blood seven times before Adonay, in front of the veil of the sanctuary.

7 And the kohen shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of sweet incense before Adonay, which is in the tabernacle of meeting; and he shall pour the remaining blood of the bull at the base of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of meeting.

8 He shall take from it all the fat of the bull as the sin offering. The fat that covers the entrails and all the fat which is on the entrails,

9 the two kidneys and the fat that is on them by the flanks, and the fatty lobe attached to the liver above the kidneys, he shall remove,

10 as it was taken from the bull of the sacrifice of the peace offering; and the kohen shall burn them on the altar of the burnt offering.

11 But the bull's hide and all its flesh, with its head and legs, its entrails and offal--

12 the whole bull he shall carry outside the camp to a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire; where the ashes are poured out it shall be burned.

13 'Now if the whole congregation of Israel sins unintentionally, and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done something against any of the commandments of Adonay in anything which should not be done, and are guilty;

14 when the sin which they have committed becomes known, then the assembly shall offer a young bull for the sin, and bring it before the tabernacle of meeting. 15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull before Adonay. Then the bull shall be killed before Adonay.

16 The anointed kohen shall bring some of the bull's blood to the tabernacle of meeting.

17 Then the kohen shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle it seven times before Adonay, in front of the veil.

18 And he shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar which is before Adonay, which is in the tabernacle of meeting; and he shall pour the remaining blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of meeting.

19 He shall take all the fat from it and burn it on the altar.

20 And he shall do with the bull as he did with the bull as a sin offering; thus he shall do with it. So the kohen shall make atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven them.

21 Then he shall carry the bull outside the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bull. It is a sin offering for the assembly.

22  “When a leader sins, doing unintentionally any one of all the things that by the commandments of Adonay his Elohim ought not to be done, and realizes his guilt,

23 or if his sin which he has committed comes to his knowledge, he shall bring as his offering a kid of the goats, a male without blemish.

24 And he shall lay his hand on the head of the goat, and kill it at the place where they kill the burnt offering before Adonay. It is a sin offering.

25 The kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and pour its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering.

26 And he shall burn all its fat on the altar, like the fat of the sacrifice of the peace offering. So the kohen shall make atonement for him concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him.

27 'If anyone of the common people sins unintentionally by doing something against any of the commandments of Adonay in anything which ought not to be done, and is guilty,

28 or if his sin which he has committed comes to his knowledge, then he shall bring as his offering a kid of the goats, a female without blemish, for his sin which he has committed.

29 And he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering, and kill the sin offering at the place of the burnt offering.

30 Then the kohen shall take some of its blood with his finger, put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and pour all the remaining blood at the base of the altar.

31 He shall remove all its fat, as fat is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offering; and the kohen shall burn it on the altar for a sweet aroma to Adonay. So the kohen shall make atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven him.

32 'If he brings a lamb as his sin offering, he shall bring a female without blemish.

33 Then he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering, and kill it as a sin offering at the place where they kill the burnt offering.

34 The kohen shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger, put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and pour all the remaining blood at the base of the altar.

35 He shall remove all its fat, as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offering. Then the kohen shall burn it on the altar, according to the offerings made by fire to Adonay. So the kohen shall make atonement for his sin that he has committed, and it shall be forgiven him.

22 'If you sin unintentionally, and do not observe all these commandments which Adonay has spoken to Mosheh--

23 all that Adonay has commanded you by the hand of Mosheh, from the day Adonay gave commandment and onward throughout your generations--

Bamidbar 15:24  then it will be, if it is unintentionally committed, without the knowledge of the congregation, that the whole congregation shall offer one young bull as a burnt offering, as a sweet aroma to Adonay, with its grain offering and its drink offering, according to the ordinance, and one kid of the goats as a sin offering.

Bamidbar 15:25  So the Kohen shall make atonement for the whole congregation of Benai Yisrael, and it shall be forgiven them, for it was unintentional; they shall bring their offering, an offering made by fire to Adonay, and their sin offering before Adonay, for their unintended sin.


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