Ketuvim כתובים / Hagiographa / writing

Daniyel (דניאל) Chapter 8

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The Vision Ram and the Goat

On each year feast of Hanukah remembers the restore and rededicated worship in Yerushalayim in the year 164 BCE  after the Anti-Messiah like activities of Antiochus Epiphanes predicted in this chapter

8:1 In the Third year of the reign of king Belt'shatzar (בּלטשׁאצAramaic) a vision appeared unto me, [even unto] me Daniyel (דניאל), after that which appeared unto me at the first.

8:2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I [was] at Shushan [in] the palace, which [is] in the province of Eilam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

8:3 Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the [two] horns [were] high; but one [was] higher than the other, and the higher came up last.

8:4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; so that no other beasts could stand before him, neither was there anyone could deliver out of his yad (hand); but he did according to his will, and magnified himself.

8:5 And as I was considering, behold, an he-goat came from the west on the face of the whole eretz, and touched not the ground: and the goat [had] a notable horn between his eyes.

8:6 And he came to the ram that had [two] horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power.

8:7 And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his yad (hand).

8:8 Therefore the he-goat grew exceedingly great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven

The story of Hanukah began

*8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which grew exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the Splendid land.

The kedoshim persecution

8:10 And it waxed great, [even] to the Tzva (host) ha Shamayim; and it cast down [some] of the host and of the kokhavim (stars) to the ground, and stamped upon them.

8:11 Yea, he magnified [himself] even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily [sacrifice] was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

8:12 And an host was given [him] against the daily [sacrifice] by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it accomplished this, and prospered.

8:13 Then I heard one set apart speaking, and another set apart said unto that certain [set apart ones] which spake, How long [shall be] the vision [concerning] the daily [sacrifice], and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

8:14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

The Interpreter (15-19)

8:15 And it came to pass, when I, [even] I Daniyel (דניאל), had seen the vision, and sought for the meaning, then, behold, there stood before me as the appearance of a man.

8:16 And I heard a man's voice between [the banks of] Ulai, which called, and said, Gavri'el, make this [man] to understand the vision.

8:17 So he came near where I stood: and when he came, I was afraid, and fell upon my face: but he said unto me, Understand, O son of man: for at the time of the end [shall be] the vision.

8:18 Now as he was speaking with me, I was in a deep sleep on my face toward the ground: but he touched me, and set me upright.

8:19 And he said, Behold, I will make thee know what shall be in the last end of the indignation: for at the time appointed the end [shall be].

The Interpretation (20-27)

8:20 The ram which thou sawest having [two] horns [are] the kingim of Media and Paras (פּר).

8:21 And the rough goat [is] the king of Yavan: and the great horn that [is] between his eyes [is] the first king.

8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

8:23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up.

8:24 And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the set apart people.

8:25 And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his yad (hand); and he shall magnify [himself] in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without yad (hand).

8:26 And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told [is] true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it [shall be] for many days.

8:27 And I Daniyel (דניאל) fainted, and was sick [certain] days; afterward I rose up, and did the king's business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood [it].

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Chapter 8:13 The Seven Desolations

Seven Times in the book of Daniyel mention of the Desolation:-

  1. About the Sanctuary - 8:13 fulfilled by Antiochus Epiphanes in the year 171-164 BCE
  2. About the Sanctuary - in vs 9:17, alluding to it condition in Daniyel's to,e when the Yehudim were in exile.
  3. About the Sanctuary generally of the land in vs 9:18 also referring to Daniyel's time
  4. About the Sanctuary  in vs 9:26 fulfilled in AD 70 in the destruction of city and temple after the cutting off of Moshiach (Loukas 21:20)
  5. - 6 and 7 About the Sanctuary by the beast Daniyel 9:27; 11:31; 12:11 compare with Mattityahu 24:15; Markos 13:14; 2 Thesalonika 2:3,8-12 Revelation 13:1-18


Alexander the Great, Mosaic Detail, House of the Faun, Pompeii discovered 1830s

Shushan : Susa (Persian: شوش, pronounced [ʃuʃ]; also Armenian (Shushan); Greek: Σοῦσα [sousa]); Syriac: ܫܘܫ (Shush); was an ancient city of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran, located about 250 km (150 miles) east of the Tigris River.

Ulai was the Eulaus of the Greeks, a river of Susiana.

The Ulai may have been the eastern branch of the Choasper (Kerkhan), which divided into two branches some 20 miles above the city of Susa. Hence Daniyel (8:2,16) speaks of standing "between the banks of Ulai", i.e., between the two streams of the divided river. Another possible location of this river is the Rud-e Karun, a tributary of the Shatt al-Arab(known as Arvand Rud in Iran) .

Ulai mentions in the Bible: