Torah Moshe 3:

Vayikra / ויקרא

Leviticus Chapter 11

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Instruction concerning the clean (Tahor) and unclean (tamei) Animals

11:1 (vi)

And ADONAI  spoke to Moshe and to Aharon, saying to them:

11:2 [p149N6]

Speak to Benai Yisrael, saying:

'These are the animals which you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth:

11:3 כֹּ֣ל׀ מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פְּרָסֹ֔ת מַעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ׃

Kol mafreset parsah, veshosa'at shesa perasot, ma'alat gerah babehemah; otah tochelu

Among the animals, whatever divides the hoof, having cloven hooves and chewing the cud—that you may eat.

11:4 אַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ מִֽמַּעֲלֵי֙ הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵ֖י הַפַּרְסָ֑ה אֶֽת־הַ֠גָּמָל כִּֽי־מַעֲלֵ֨ה גֵרָ֜ה ה֗וּא וּפַרְסָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נּוּ מַפְרִ֔יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃

Ach et-zeh lo tochelu, mima'alei hagerah, umimafrisei haparsah; et-hagamol ki-ma'aleh gerah hu, ufarsah einenu mafris, tamei hu lachem.

Nevertheless these you shall not eat among those that chew the cud or those that have cloven hooves:

the camel, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you;

11:5 וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֗ן כִּֽי־מַעֲלֵ֤ה גֵרָה֙ ה֔וּא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א יַפְרִ֑יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃

Ve'et-hashafan, ki-ma'aleh gerah hu, ufarsah lo yafris; tamei hu lachem.

The hyrax, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you;

11:6 וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶ֗בֶת כִּֽי־מַעֲלַ֤ת גֵּרָה֙ הִ֔וא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֑יסָה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִ֖וא לָכֶֽם׃

Ve'et-ha'arnevet, ki-ma'alat gerah hi ufarsah lo hifrisah; teme'ah hi lachem.

And the hare, because it chews the cud but does not have cloven hooves, is unclean to you;

11:7 וְאֶת־הַ֠חֲזִיר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֜ה ה֗וּא וְשֹׁסַ֥ע שֶׁ֨סַע֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה וְה֖וּא גֵּרָ֣ה לֹֽא־יִגָּ֑ר טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃

Ve'et-hachazir ki-mafris parsah hu, veshosa shesa parsah, vehu gerah lo-yigar; tamei hu lachem.

And the chazer (swine), though it divides the hoof, having cloven hooves, yet does not chew the cud, is unclean to you.

11:8 Their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch. They are unclean to you.


11:9 [p152N6] destestable / detestable

 'These you may eat of all that are in the water: whatever in the water has fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers—that you may eat.

11:10 But all in the seas or in the rivers that do not have fins and scales, all that move in the water or any living thing which is in the water, they are destestable to you.

11:11 [n173N6]

They shall be destestable to you; you shall not eat their flesh, but you shall regard their carcasses as destestable.

11:12 Whatever in the water does not have fins or scales—that shall be destestable to you.


All birds of prey (vulture, hawk, eagle) are forbidden.

Bird  that are kosher -- e.g. Chicken, Dove, Duck, Geese, Grouse, Partridge, Pheasant, Pigeon, Quail, Turkey, all song birds

11:13 [n174N6]

"And these you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten; they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture,

11:14 the kite, the falcon of any kind,

11:15 Every raven after his kind;

11:16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

11:17 And the little owl, and the cormorant (sea raven), and the great owl,

11:18 And the horn owl (角鸱), and the pelican (鵜鶘), and the gier eagle (白兀鷲),

11:19 the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.

11:20 All fowls that creep, going upon [all] four, [shall be] an sheketz (detestable) to you.


11:21 [p151N6]

Yet these may you eat of every flying creeping thing that goes upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;

11:22 Even these of them you may eat:

even the arbeh locust after its kind,

and the salam locust after its kind,

and the chagol locust after its kind,

and the chagav locust after its kind.

11:23 But all [other] flying creeping things, which have four feet, [shall be] an sheketz (detestable) to you.

Status of uncleaness and what you do?

Uncleaness that settles upon or when one touches

11:24 And for these you shall be tamei: whosoever touches the carcase of them shall be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

11:25 And whosoever bears ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

11:26 The carcases of every beast which divides the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor chews the cud, are tamei to you: every one that touches them shall be tamei.

11:27 And whatsoever goes upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on [all] four, those [are] tamei to you: whoso touches their carcase shall be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

11:28 And he that bears the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be tamei until the Erev (ערב): they [are] tamei to you.

*11:29 -31[*p97N6]

These also shall be tamei to you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

*11:30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

Further rules on contact with things unclean

*11:31 These [are] tamei to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

11:32 Anything on which any of them falls, when they are dead shall be unclean, whether it is any item of wood or clothing or skin or sack, whatever item it is, in which any work is done, it must be put in water. And it shall be unclean until evening; then it shall be clean.

11:33 (vii)

Any earthen vessel into which any of them falls you shall break; and whatever is in it shall be unclean:

11:34 in such a vessel, any edible food upon which water falls becomes unclean, and any drink that may be drunk from it becomes unclean.

11:35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falls shall be tamei; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are tamei, and shall be tamei to you.

11:36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be Tahor: but that which touches their carcase shall be tamei.

11:37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing Zara (seed) which is to be sown, it shall be Tahor.

11:38 But if [any] water be put upon the Zara (seed), and [any part] of their carcase fall thereon, it [shall be] tamei to you.

11:39 And if any beast, of which you may eat, die; he that touches the carcase thereof shall be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

11:40 And he that eats of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be tamei until the Erev (ערב): he also that bears the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be tamei until the Erev (ערב).

*11:41 [*n176N6]

And every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth [shall be] an sheketz (detestable); it shall not be eaten.

*11:42 Whatsoever goes upon the belly, and whatsoever goes upon [all] four, or whatsoever has more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them you shall not eat; for they [are] an sheketz (detestable).

*11:43 You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps, neither shall you make yourselves tamei with them, that you should be tamei (defiled) thereby.

*11:44 For ANI ADONAI (יהוה) Eloheichem:

You shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and you shall be Kadosh; for ANI Kadosh: neither shall you tamei (defile) yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.

11:45 (maftir)

For Ani ADONAI (יהוה) that brings you up out of the eretz of Mitzrayim, to be your Elohim:

Vihyitem kedoshim ki Kadosh Ani

you shall therefore be set apart, for I AM Set Apart.

11:46 This [is] the Torah concerning the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps upon the earth:

11:47 To make a havdil (difference) bein (between) the tamei and the Tahor, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.

Haftarah Sh'mini: Sh'mu'el Bet (2 Samuel) 6: 1- 7: 17 (A); 6: 1- 19 (S)

Parashah Sh'mini from the B'rit Hadashah: Markos 7: 1- 23; Acts 5: 1- 11; 10: 1- 35; 2 Korinthos 6: 14- 7: 1; Galates 2: 11- 16; 1 Kefa (1 Peter) 1: 14- 16

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destestable = The Hebrew word use here is sheketz instead of Toebah a thing that causes disgust or hatred. Synonyms atrocity, disgrace, horror, obscenity, outrage, evil, crime, monstrosity, anathema, bane. A feeling of Hatred detestation, loathing, hatred, aversion, antipathy, revulsion, repugnance, abhorrence, odium, execration, disgust, horror, hostility

In the strong Concordance that describe destestable and

H4209 mezimmah

H8251 shikkutz = (1 Kings 11:5) H8251 shikkutz abominable idol I Kings 9:6-9

H8263 sheketz

H8441 toevah

Background information about pigs in pagan practice and beliefs

Vayikra 11:7. pigs swine hog.

Assyrian wisdom literature calls the pig unholy, unfit for the temple and destestable to the gods.

There is also one dream text in which eating pork is a bad omen. However pork was a regular part of the diet in Mesopotamia.

Some Hittite rituals require the sacrifice of a pig. Milgrom observes, however, that in such rituals the pig is not put on the altar as food for the god but absorbs impurity and then is burned or buried as an offering to underworld deities.

Likewise in Mesopotamia it was offered as a sacrifice to demons. There is evidence in Mitzrayim of pigs used for food, and Herodotus claims they were used for sacrifice there as well. Mitrites sources speak of herds of swine being kept on temple property, and they were often included in donations to the temples. The pig was especially sacred to the god Seth.

Most evidence for the sacrifice of pigs, however, comes from Greece and Rome, there also mostly to gods of the underworld. In urban settings pigs along with dogs often scavenged in the streets, making them additionally repulsive.

The attitude toward the pig in Yisrael is very clear in Yeshayahu 65:4; Yeshayahu 66:3, Yeshayahu 66:17, the former showing close connection to worship of the dead. It is very possible then that sacrificing a pig was synonymous with sacrificing to demons or the dead

Brit Hadashah swine demon possess

MattitYahu 8:31  The demons began to entreat Him, saying, "If You are going to cast us out, send us into the herd of swine."

MattitYahu 8:32  And He said to them, "Go!" And they came out and went into the swine, and the whole herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea and perished in the waters.

Markos 5:11  Now there was a large herd of swine feeding nearby on the mountain.

Markos 5:12  The demons implored Him, saying, "Send us into the swine so that we may enter them."

Markos 5:13  Yeshua gave them permission. And coming out, the unclean spirits entered the swine; and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea, about two thousand of them; and they were drowned in the sea.

Markos 5:16  Those who had seen it described to them how it had happened to the demon-possessed man, and all about the swine.

Loukas 8:32  Now there was a herd of many swine feeding there on the mountain; and the demons implored Him to permit them to enter the swine. And He gave them permission.

Loukas 8:33  And the demons came out of the man and entered the swine; and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake and was drowned.

Loukas 15:15  "So he went and hired himself out to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.

Loukas 15:16  "And he would have gladly filled his stomach with the pods that the swine were eating, and no one was giving anything to him.

Elohim draws a strict line of demarcation between light and darkness, night and day, black and white, right and wrong, clean and unclean.

Elohim makes the rules, and man must make his decisions according to Elohim's rules.

Havdil (havdalah) - meaning difference, distinction, distinctive, In order for an animal to be kosher it must have two identification signs:

Chazer - Swine, Pigs hog Hebrew word for pig is "chazer", which also means "return", compounding the deception as if to say that the pig additionally returns its food (i.e. chews its cud) and has the inner kosher sign as well.

(1) it has split hooves, significant hooves are use for moving around associate with our walk, split represent set apart, our live must be the distinguish between the set apart and the profane. An external exhibit or outward reality external Kosher

(2) it chews its cud (regurgitates its food partially digested in the stomach).  associate with the spiritual food must be meditate with understanding and word of Elohim manifested in our lives, Rightly dividing the word of truth.II Timothy 2:15 also be careful with what we take in. Maintain Kosher inwardly of the soul which can be seen by others.

Animals That Chew the Cud and Part the Hoof

Kosher animals are always mammals and herbivores. The kosher animals commonly eaten today are the Antelope; Bison (buffalo); Caribou; Cattle (beef, veal); Deer (venison); Elk; Gazelle; Giraffe; Goat; Hart; Ibex; Moose; Ox; Reindeer; Sheep (lamb, mutton)

Hyraxes ( "shrewmouse") (also called dassies) are small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. Other version names: coney rock badger



The hoopoe (Upupa epops) is a colourful bird found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive "crown" of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae , the open head crown like the phislistim


A kosher fish must possess both fins and scales. (Fins help the fish swim, and scales are a covering over the body.) Even if the fish has only one scale or one fin, it is permitted. Tuna, for example, have very few scales, yet is kosher. Other popular kosher fish are bass, carp, cod, flounder, halibut, herring, mackerel, trout and salmon. kosher varieties of sushi and caviar -- providing it's from a kosher species (fins and scales), and that it was prepared only with kosher utensils (knife, cutting board, etc.)

Crustaceans (such as lobster and crab) and other shellfish (such as clams) are not kosher, because they lack scales. Further, all aquatic mammals (e.g. whales and dolphins) are not kosher.



Et-eleh mehem tochelu

et-ha'arbeh lemino

ve'et-hasal 'am leminehu

ve'et-hachargol leminehu

ve'et-hechagav leminehu.

Four species of locusts that are kosher However, all other insects are not kosher.

ha arbeh ( ארבּה) in Hebrew. Red swarming locust is most destructive member of locust family) ; grad in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite traditions, this reddish locust is permitted (Yosef Kapach, Halikhoth Teimon, Jerusalem, 1968, p. 218). More generally, arbeh denotes the Sudanese or desert locust (Scistocerca gregaria) which reaches the Holy Land in large numbers.

ha sal'am in Hebrew (סלעם ) yellow devastating bald headed locust.Plagues of the desert locust  Rashona in Aramaic (Chullin 65a); daba or dabai in Arabic (Saadia; Ibn Janach). The yellow locust is permitted according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes the sal'am as having a head which is bald in front (gabachath; see Leviticus 13:42) and long (Chullin 65b; Yad, Maakhaloth Assuroth 1:22; cf. Avodah Zarah 37a). It is therefore sometimes translated as 'bald locust' or 'long-headed locust.' This locust, the rashon, is said to resemble a human embryo in its first stages of development (Niddah 25a; Arukh). have threatened agricultural production in Africa, the Middle East and Asia for centuries. The livelihood of at least one-tenth of the world’s human population can be affected by this hungry insect.The desert locust lives a solitary life, until it rains. Rain causes vegetation growth and spurs the development of eggs that have been laid in the sandy soil. The new vegetation provides food for the newly hatched locusts and provides them with shelter as they develop into winged adults.

Ha chargol (חרגּל) in Hebrew spotted grey locust ; nippulah in Aramaic; chartziyiya in Arabic, according to Yemenite tradition (Halikhoth Teimon). The Talmud describes this locust as having a tail (Chullin 65a); some therefore identify it with the long-horned grasshopper (tettigonidae), since the female has a long protuberance with which it lays eggs. The Septuagint translates chargol as ophiomaches which literally means 'snake fighter.' It may have been given this name because of its long snake-like body or tail. The name also denotes a large insect, perhaps a giant grasshopper, as is also suggested by its Aramaic name, nippulah, which suggests a nifla, Hebrew for giant. Its large eggs were used as amulets (Shabbath 6:10).

Ha chagav  (חגב) are white locust in Hebrew; gandav in Arabic (Saadia). According to Yemenite tradition, this is a small white locust (Halikhoth Teimon). From scripture it also appears to be the smallest of the locusts (cf. Numbers 13:33).

Life Cycle of locust

General Rules

Although the details of kashrut are extensive, the laws all derive from a few fairly simple, straightforward rules:

Certain animals may not be eaten at all. This restriction includes the flesh, organs, eggs and milk of the forbidden animals.

Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be killed in accordance with Jewish law.

All blood must be drained from the meat or broiled out of it before it is eaten.

Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.

Meat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. (According to some views, fish may not be eaten with meat).

Utensils that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and vice versa. Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food may not be used with kosher food. This applies only where the contact occurred while the food was hot.

Grape products made by non-Jews may not be eaten.

Kosher Product list in Singapore Supermarket

Learn more about Scale and non-scale fish

Seven pairs of Tahor (clean) animals

Pictures of Tamei (Unclean) animals

The Signs of Swine by Jon n Chevre

Studies on Kosher:

Go to Deuteronomy 14 / Dvarim 14

CRC Kosher Lists


Hanefesh: kosher Symbols and Food Guidance

In Ancient Egypt, the vulture hieroglyph was the uniliteral sign used for the glottal sound The scripture makes a reference to the Egyptian Vulture under the Hebrew name of rachamah/racham רחמה  /  רחם which has been translated into English as "gier-eagle". The Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), also called the White Scavenger Vulture or Pharaoh's Chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron. Their habit of feeding on faeces

在古埃及,秃鹫象形文字是用于声门声音uniliteral标志。圣经使下rachamah/ racham已经被翻译成英文为“秃鹰”的希伯来名字的引用,埃及秃鹰