Neviim Akharonim
Sefer Yonah / יואל / Yonah Chapter 1

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Read the Maftir Yonah on Yom Kippur afternoon

Lesson on Teshuvah, Hashem have mercy to the goyim & one cannot run away from Hashem

2 Melekhim 14:23  It was in the fifteenth year of Amatzyah Ben Yo'ash, king of Y'hudah, that Yarov`am Ben Yo'ash, king of Isra'el, began to reign in Shomron; and he ruled for forty-one years. 2Ki 14:25  He recovered the territory of Isra'el between the entrance of Hamat and the sea of the `Aravah, in keeping with the word of Adonai the God of Isra'el, which he spoke through his servant Yonah the son of Amitai, the prophet from Gat-Hefer.

(Hebrew: יוֹנָה, Modern Yona, Tiberian Yônā; dove; Arabic: يونس‎‎ Yūnus, Yūnis or يونان Yūnān ; Latin: Ionas) 

1:1 Now Dvar YHVH (יהוה) came to Yonah Ben Amittai, saying:

1:2 Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it; for their wickedness is come up before me.

1:3 But Yonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of YHVH (יהוה), and went down to Yofa (Joppa); and he found a ship going to Tarshish: so he paid the fare thereof, and went down into it, to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of YHVH (יהוה).

1:4 But YHVH (יהוה) sent out a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken.

1:5 Then the mariners were afraid, and kara (קרא cried) every man to his god, and cast forth the wares that [were] in the ship into the sea, to lighten [it] of them. But Yonah was gone down into the sides of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep

In contrast withY Mattityahu 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke 8:22-25, Yeshua has authority over wind and sea

1:6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said to him,

"What do you mean you sleeper?

Arise, call upon your Elohim (אלהים), Perhaps Elohim (אלהים) will give a thought to us, that we may not perish.

1:7 And they said every one to his fellow,

Come, and let us cast lots, that we may know for whose cause this evil [is] upon us.

So they cast lots, and the lot fell upon Yonah.

1:8 Then said they to him:

"Please tell us! For whose cause is this trouble upon us?

bullet05_fire.gifWhat is your occupation? and

bullet05_fire.gifWhere do you come from?

bullet05_fire.gifWhat is your country? and

bullet05_fire.gifof what people are you?

1:9 And he said to them:

I am a Hebrew; and

I fear YHVH (יהוה), Elohim (אלהים) Shamayim,

who made the sea and the dry land.

1:10 Then were the men exceedingly afraid, and said to him,

"Why have you done this? For the men knew that he fled from the presence of YHVH (יהוה), because he had told them.

Yonah Thrown Overboard and Swallowed by a Great Fish

1:11 Then they said to him, "What shall we do to you that the sea may be calm for us?"—for the sea was growing more tempestuous.

1:12 And he said to them, "Pick me up and throw me into the sea; then the sea will become calm for you. For I know that this great tempest is because of me."

1:13 Nevertheless the men rowed hard to bring [it] to the land; but they could not: for the sea wrought, and was tempestuous against them.

1:14 Therefore they kara (קרא cried) to YHVH (יהוה), and said:

"We pray,

O YHVH (יהוה),

please do not let us perish for this man'life, and do not charge us with innocent blood: for You,

O YHVH (יהוה),

have done as it pleased You.

1:15 So they picked up Yonah, and threw him into the sea: and the sea ceased from its raging.

1:16 Then the men feared YHVH (יהוה) exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice to YHVH (יהוה), and made vows.

1:17 (2:1) Now YHVH (יהוה) had *prepared a great fish to swallow up Yonah. And YYonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.Y


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Author : Yonah Ben Amittai (truth)

Theme: Hashem is Merciful and forgiving

Date of writing: 8th Century B.C

Total number of verse 17+10+10+11=48 verse

Cross Reference :

Mathew 12:39  He replied, "A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign? No! None will be given to it but the sign of the prophet Yonah.

Mathew 16:4  A wicked and adulterous generation is asking for a sign? It will certainly not be given a sign — except the sign of Yonah!" With that he left them and went off.

Loukas 11:29  As the people crowded around him, Yeshua went on to say, "This generation is a wicked generation! It asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it — except the sign of Yonah.

Loukas11:30  For just as Yonah became a sign to the people of Ninveh, so will the Son of Man be for this generation.

Luk 11:32  The people of Ninveh will stand up at the Judgment with this generation and condemn it, for they turned to God from their sins when Yonah preached, and what is here now is greater than Yonah.


Melekhim Bet 14:25 He restored the boundary of Yisrael from the entrance of Chamat to the yam of the Aravah, according to the Devar YHVH Elohei Yisrael, which He spoke by the hand of His servant ha Navi Yonah Ben Amittai, who was of Gat HaChefer.

Gat HaChefer. ("winepress of the pit) (the Inheritance for Zevulun)

The Story of Yonah Ben Amtai, was the 5th in traditional Listing by the CHAZAL of the group of Neviim known as the " Trei-Asr" (the Twelve) Yonah is also called Dhul-Nun (Arabic: ذو النون; meaning The One of the Whale).  His sefer was selected to be read during Minchah, the afternno service, of Yom HaKippurim, to show the power of Teshuvah, Repentance and of HaShem (Adonai)'s all encompassing Midat HaRachamim, Attribute of His Mercy.

The Sefer Yonah was featured in the Apostolic writings also in the Koran (Quran) Yonah was a Navi Yisrael who lived about the time of Yerovoam II (2 Kings 14:25, His name means Dove. Having a character of a chauvinist. Sefer Yonah is full of the supernatural, aside from the great fish, there are the vine, the worm and the east wind, and greatest of all, the repentance of the entire city of Nineveh. Yonah's character and Hashem's dealing with him foreshadow the subsequent history of the nation of Yisrael. but miraculously to the nations (Zekaryahu 8:7-23). Yonah typifies Mashiach as the Shaliach meaning the send one, raised from the dead and carrying salvation to the Goyim.


The Disobedience and Flight of Yonah - 1:1-11

a. Introduction - 1:1

b. Yonah flee from Adonay 1:2-11

1. Hashem's commission -1:2

2. Yonah's Disobedience - 1:3

Yonah and the great fish - 1:12-2:10

a. Yonah swallowed by the fish - 1:12-17

b. Yonah's tefillah - 2:1-9

c. Adonay's Answer - 2:10

The Greatest Revival in history - 3:1-10

a. Yonah's Obedience - 3:1-10

b. Nineveh's make Teshuvah - 3:4-10

The wideness of Hashem's Mercy - 4:1-11

a. Yonah's displeasure - 4:1-3

b. Yonah's rebuked by Adonay - 4:4-11

Parallels Between Yonah and Paulos

Both were heading to Spain

Both sailed on the Mediterranean

Both encountered a great storm on the sea

Both crews threw cargo overboard

Presence/absence of seeking the Adonai’s guidance

The captain advises Yonah, Paulos advises the captain

Yonah didn’t listen to the captain, the captain didn’t listen to Paulos

Nineveh (Akkadian: Ninua; Syriac: Ninua) was an important city in ancient Assyria. This "exceeding great city", as it is called in the sefer Yonah mention about 4 times, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in modern-day Mosul, Iraq.

Links about Nineveh and kingdom of the east.

The language spoken in Nineveh is known as Ashurit (Hebrew "Ktav Ashuri," or Ashurai writing.) The Ashurai are the people of Mesopotamia, or as the land is called in the Ashurai language, Bet Nahrein. They had three capitals, Ashur, Nimrud and Nineveh. The last capital fell in 612 BC. The Ashurai people's ancient Aramaic language is the key to understanding the Scriptures.

Ancient Nineveh's mound-ruins (36°22'N 43°09'E), Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris River and the Khosr River within an 1800-acre (730 ha) area circumscribed by a seven and one-half mile (12 km) brick-rampart. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlped in parts by the city of Mosul. Situated at the confluence of the Tigris and Khosr, Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all the region's ancient cities

Pictures of Ruin ancient Nineveh

Kingdom of the East see powerpoint presentation

Lachish Archaeology in Israel

Map of Nineveh

Yofa (Joppa, modern day Jaffa)- the place of Kefa's vision Acts 9:36, 43

Tarshish - probably in Spain The Septuagent, the Greek version of the Tenakh, translated Tarshish as "Carthage" though at that time "Carthage" (in Tunis, North Africa) also ruled over the former areas of Tarshish in Spain:

Tehillim 48:7 Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east wind.
Tehillim 72:10 The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents: the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts.

*Manah מנה - prepared, to count, assign, to detail (mil) number, reckon  appoint, destine, muster, number, (1:17;4:6-8; Tehillim 147:4) By preparing the fish, Hashem made sure that Yonah's mission was not left to chance. Hashem exercised sovereignty not over nature, plants and animals but also over Yonah's life, using animals as small as worm to teach Yonah about His great mercy (Yonah 4:6-8)