Local and imported fish sold in Singapore Fish markets

hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat

聖經舊約之首五卷 Leviticus / 利 未 記  11:9

Why do fish haves scales?

The main purpose of scales is to provide the fish an external protection. Some fish species can differential between male or female. Some fish have two different type of scales in one fish. Fishes internal organs such teeth / no teeth, have heart, gills (made up of filaments, arches and rakers), tongues, it has Gill spetum n operculum both act as a flaplike cover in cartilaginous fish prents oxygen poor water from drawn back into the branchial cavity; swimming bladder, stomach, lateral line (navigate in dark, detect predators, find food) liver, kidneys, female roe, male testes, Gonads are the organs that produce the sex cells. I have also notice same species various different size : small, Medium (M), large, extra large XL eg Threadfin.

Get to know more about types anatomy of facinating fishes:

Fish locomotion or swimming styles:

Types of Scales

All Scales are colourless and there are six main kinds of scales and numerous variations of each kind are they all kosher? Let's see.

  1. Placoid Scales -  Non- Kosher, composed of a vascular (supplied with blood) inner core of pulp, unlike other scale fish they do not increase in size as the fish grows however new scales are added in the later years. Placoid Scales have a middle layer of denticle and a hard enamel-like outer layer of vitrodentine - Irregular Pattern, Bony, thorn-shaped, hard, partially embedded, sand paper texture, blood supply in pulp core, spiner pointed towards tail end; aggressive canivorous, could be man-eating fish. Placoid scales are found on cartilaginous fish such as  the Sharks, 安康魚 (Monkfish, Lophius americanus), numbfish, Manta Ray, Black dogfish, Green sawfish (綠鋸鯊 pristis Zijsron), Basking shark, Great hammerhead shark 巨雙髻鯊; Atlantic Guitarfish, skate . Inventors are discovering the use a robot with undulating fins attached to motors,  with the aim of eventual use in marine studies and surveillance operations.
  2. Cosmoid scales - Non Kosher consist inner layer of the scale are made up of lameller bone; of two basal layers of bone, a layer of dentine-like material call cosmine, the upper surface is keratin and an outer layer of vitrodentine.similar to placoid scales eg lungfish.pirarucu, True cosmoid scales can only be found on the extinct Crossopterygians.  The coelacanth has modified cosmoid scales that lack cosmine and are thinner than true cosmoid scales. Also notice Cosmoid scaled fish have pelvic fins nearer towards the pectoral fins.
  3. Ganoid Scales - non - Kosher Diamond  (rhomboid) shaped, Glossy, Bony, hard, Peg and socket joints between them. are covered with ganoin (similar in texture to fingernails), heavy, Non-overlapping, armour-like cannot be removed without tearing the skin. these fishes have weird body structures, slender long body shape, often aggressive.  Ganoid Scales can be found on gars (family Lepisosteidae; Lepisosteids); bichirs, Polypterids (reedfishes), Lepisosteids (gars) actinopterygians, the lungifsh, and the coelocanth have elasmoid scales lepidotrichia (bony ray) eg shortnose Gar, sturgeon poacher, snakehead, Bichir, Huso huso, lake sturgeon,
  4. Cycloid and Ctenoid scales - Kosher are found in bony fishes (Teleostei) the word "ctenoid" comes from the Greek "cteno", meaning comb, and refers to the comb-like ctenii on the margin of the scale. ctenoid scales - having a patch of small prickles on the exposed rear part , often found in fish that have spiny fin rays while the cycloid scales - are roughly round in shape, without prickles. thin, external, smooth outer edges, transparent, overlapping scale, flexible, easily detachable skin remain undamage. Cycloid scales mostly found on Carps and salmons. The Cycloid and ctenoid scales increase its size as the fish grows, it also has growth rings call circuli visible to eye, similar like the rings of the tree trunk. There are Some fish may have cycloid or ctenoid scales at juvenile stage & may lose their scales at adult stage is consider non-kosher. These type of fish often look mild, gentle non aggressive, non toxic  eg mulet, rainbow trout, flatfish, Salmon, swallowtail seabream, rainbow smelt, grass carp, snook, walleye, Black drum, Black crappie, white perch, orange throat darter,
  5. Tiny embeded scales - consist of very small scales; bodies contain metallic sheen, 高的金属的有毒元素 Some consider as Kosher???? but are not classified as cycloid and Ctenoid scales such as tuna not quite visible to eye, fast topedo swimmer , mackrel family Read information of tunas here - Click here
  6. Leptoid scales are found on the higher bony fishes and come in two forms, ctenoid and cycloid scales.

Facts how to select fresh fish?

Below Picture is an illustration design and presented by NTUC Fair Price Yishun South branch,

I like the well design graphic, you click on the picture to visit the Fair price website, various type of species are well set apart compartment and names of fish well label

How can I know if a fish is kosher?

The Torah says that the simanim of kosher fish are “snapir v’ kaskeses”. However the Gemara tells us that all fish that have “kaskeses” have “snapir”, so in practice, all one needs to determine that a fish is kosher is that it has kaskeses! So what exactly is kaskeses?  “Kaskeses” is generally translated as scales. Nonetheless, not all scales are considered kaskeses. This is because the Ramban, in his commentary on the Torah tells us “kaskeses” are scales that can be easily removed by hand or with a knife without tearing the skin. Scales that are embedded in a fish (or are not visible to the naked eye) are not “kaskeses”. The Ramban’s definition is universally accepted, and in fact the Rema rules that those scales that cannot be easily removed (according to the parameters that will be discussed below) cannot be called “kaskeses”.

To check if a fish is kosher, one must ascertain that its scales could be properly removed.9 Scales are attached on the side to the fish on that side of the scale which is closer to the head and are not attached on the other side of the scale which is closer to the tail. To remove the scales, one must grasp that side that is not attached and gently pluck it off from the side of the fish.10 If removing the scale did not damage the skin, then the fish is kosher.  Scale fish must be place on separate compartment slope or tilted bench for better drainage, cover with more ice in warm climate like Singapore. The Scale fish should be  away from the non-kosher fish and other marine animals and cutting has to be kept separate. Be sure to wash the fish immediate after cutting, at home I would wash with salt water. Most Kosher fish are found in the Epi pelagic zone, you visit this link to learn about the Pelagic Zone.

Fish roes has the same kosher status as the fish they came from. It is important the roe fish remain where it came from and that no ingredient other than salt is is used.

Illustrations of Some Popular Kosher Fish

NB Most Omega plus fish are Kosher healthy food. Our G_d the Creator of the universe knows what are best for human consumption. When we look at the anatomy, nature, survival instinct of Fishes in the scripture represent various personality, character behaviour, altitude of people. While the scale act as a shield of our faith, type of atoning covering see as the parable of the Great Banquet Matthew 22:1-13 (key verse:12-13), it  represents the Torah of G_D. Torah means Teaching and instruction. The fins is symbol of guidance, directional, having a bearing, a sense of direction, not wander aimlessly, or faith wavering, not easily misled, surest in our salvation in Yeshua,  being very objective and focusing, the fin often have very spiky device which act like the sword to defend themselves wiles of the evil forces.

Why do fins and scales indicate that a fish is kosher?

In the Jewish mystical tradition, fins, sharp and dangerous like weapons of war, represent harsh, impure forces in the world. Only a species of fish which is equipped with scales, representing protection (i.e. armor) from these violent tendencies is appropriate for Jewish consumption. This is because the Creator desires that we characterize the attributes of kindness and compassion, and by eating foods which embody these traits we imbibe these qualities.


 Check out for


Chahad Kosher fish list

Whether the fishes are  kosher   清洁可食or non-kosher 不清洁可食  it  may not completely be indicated as lack of sufficient information. Please refer to this site below for more information. 请注意 Kosher / 清洁可食的 肉必须经过 Rabbi 认证,而且通常是用盐把里面的血吸出来.

Kosher 清淨食物名单 Kosher fish for consummers

Click here to view types of scale fish


Chinese name of Fish


English names

Scientific names

Common names in Local language

Description of habitat, nature, nutrient value, where from, any toxic elements, ideal cooking method



Alaska Black Cod Sablefish


 Alaskan sockeye Salmon fillet

Kosher High-quality protein.Smooth and tender these salmon fillets are delight for fish lover. Serve it with butter sauce or simply steam it and serve it with warm rice . Available at Jason Market place. 高品质蛋白质,

黄尾(鱼师) 【ブリ】(buri) 莱兰鰤


Amber Jack, Yellowtail buri

 Jack fish family Seriola purpurascens (Carangidae)

Kanpachi, Hiramasa, shima-aji (making sushi)

Picture clips Kosher Amber Jacks have a dark stripe that extends from nose to in front of dorsal fin that becomes more promenant when fish is in feeding mode; no scutes; soft dorsal base less than twice the length of the anal fin base. Most AmberJack are large heavy fish that are amber in color. Sold in Slice fish, available at Pargon Market Place and Jasons Market Place.

石斑 / 红石班

Shi ban yu  

Brown Grouper

Red Grouper (chamelon of the sea)

 Family Serranidae

Sek Ban, ikan kerapu, Portuguse "garoupa",

Picture clips |Brown spot greyish grouper | Redish blackspot groupers | Red grouper Sliced open prone | Red grouper sliced open inside view | Brown orange spotted | Aerial view | Close up view head Groupers are teleosts, typically having a stout body, dorsal spine and a large mouth. swallow prey rather than biting pieces off it. They do not have much tooth on the edges of their jaws, but they have heavy crushing tooth plates inside the pharynx. They habitually eat fish, octopus, crab and lobster. They lie in wait, rather than chasing in open water.They are not built for long-distance fast swimming. Has the ability to change sex It have scales,small teeth hard, can cultured farm and wild groupers can be distinguish by color. when caught alive have a thick muscous on its body even after remove the scales, this shows that the fish is still fresh. In Singapore the best place to buy cheaper live fish is at Sheng Siong supermarket., also have Hong Shi Ban (Epinephelus morio)red groupers with black spots清蒸红石班 Dowload more information of Groupers

尼罗红鱼/泥 羅 紅

Ni luo hong yu

Red or black Tilapa

Perciformes (perch-like fish) Oreochromis Mossambicus (black); Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique Tilapia)


Kosher Tilapa has about 4 colour species, white, red, black blue Tilapa Amnun nurse fish (fish with a coin to pay temple tax for Yeshua n Kefa, breathing air from the water surface. (Oreochromis aurea) ). The red Tilapa are also rear in our Singapore Floating farm.Tilapia are sometimes called sunshine snapper, cherry snapper, Nile perch, mouthbrooders and St. Peter's fish. The black telipa seem to sold out very quickly. Both color fish have scales, Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) very slimy mucous coated body it is hard to catch with bare hand,身体很滑 也有泥味,淡水鱼


Zi yu




Kosher 清蒸鲻鱼, Suitable for steaming fish, many species of mullets, Striped mullet, red mullet -  have scales

海鲈/ 海鱸

Hai lu

Sea bass

Barramundi Lates Calcarifer

Kim Bak Lor, siakap

Golden eye perch


Jin qiang yu local known as Yan Zhu




鮪魚又名金槍魚是一種鯖科的海洋生物游泳速度快鯖科鮪魚的肉色為紅色  tuna fish is a pelagic fish. It is known for its fierce battles with anglers, it has a semi-lunate (moon-shaped) caudal fin with a narrow caudal peduncle, and use an oscillation of the caudal fin with very little undulation of the rest of the body. The meat are maroon reddish with lines. Tuna are silvery metallic sheen / skin, very fine hair teeth, very tiny embedded scales; sold in all fish market outlet sold in entire fish. Be careful to check if any high metallic toxic element as the color similar to batang 高的金属的有毒元素 Non-Kosher


Xue yu

Cod fish


Ikan kod, genus

Kosher 鳕鱼大部分生活在太平洋、大西洋北方水温0℃~16℃的寒冷海里。什么都吃 belonging to the family Gadidae Flesh is white, sold in fillet form, make into snack Dahfa Dried fish fillet, sold in ABC supermarket  closer to home or get in Johor Baru, may be Giant superstore, Fresh Cod fish fillets are whitish, if it is slighty yellowish, smell to fish if there any deteoriation. To buy genuine Cod fish best buy the Cod fish in whole fish then fillet the amount you need to buy, overfish would lead to catch wrong species mistaken as Cod fish. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of Vitamin A, Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA). Cod liver oil capsule or emulsion adalah makanan kesihatan untuk Kanak Kanak, minyak ikan kod. How to fillet Cod fish?


Sha ding yu pian


 pilchards, herrings, clupeidae

Ikan Selayang / Ikan Tamban

Kosher Local found in can food; are a group of several types of small oily fish related to herrings, family Clupeidae; at least six species called just "pilchard", over a dozen called just "sardine",


Wu chang yu

Black Pomfret

 Formio niger

Hak Cheong, Ikan Bawal Hitam

Fried, popular food, It is uniquely Black Pomfret is only species that have scales. Actually Golden Pomfret also have scales

挪威三文鱼 鮭鱼

Nuo wei san wen yu

Norway Salmon



Kosher Learn about life cycle of Salmon 3 cycles eggs, alevins,fingerlings, adult goes to oceans, return to original place where they were hatch to lay eggs. Fairprice, cold storage, ABC supermarket, shop n Save , all wet markets, NTUC Fairprice sell 烟熏三文鱼  Usually sold in pre-pack Fillets, pre-pack salmon head.

Wild salmon still are the best, high content of Omega 3 poly-unsatuarated fatty acids, rich of DHA n EPA , protein, vitanmins n minerals, The Richest part of the Salmon is found in the belly flaps, excellent cut into strips n grilled, low cholesterol n calorie levels, help to reduce fat accumulated in blood vessels, prevent heart attacks n strokes, facilitate brain n ey development of children, lower the risk of asthma of children, aleviate arthralgia with anti-inflammatory function, promote emotional well being n positive mental outlook. Wild salmon are better than the Farm breed Salmon . There are a total of 7 species of salmon. The meat of Salmon are orange reddish in colour, can eat raw,  2 min steaming if you can't take raw Salmon skin / Salmon meat  Salmon are good for those who have heart disease. In the sushi counter Sake salmon is Japanese favourite see the species Japanese name Ikura Salmon Roe can be bought at Jason Market place sushi counter. The Salom roe is orange, egg-nuclear cell is wrap in a jelly-like size of large sargo seed size. It taste like "cod-liver oil"



Giant Threadfin

 Eleutheronema tetradactylum

Ikan Kurau, ngou, kau yu Tai Mah Yau Yee Koduva Meen -Tamil.

Kosher Can be made into Dried Salted fish,expensive salted fish, found in Southeast Asian waters. This type of various size small medium, large, extra large (giant) Xiao ge ali, zhong ge ali, da ge ali



Yellowfin Tuna



Made into Heinz Yellowfin, starkest, chunks in blended olive oil, Dolphfin safe sold in Fair price



Peacock Bass; Peacock Cichlid 

 Cichla orinocensis

 pavon or tucunare

have scale can be found in our Singapore reservoir, lower seletar reservoir, the male had budge,read more from our fish enthusiatic Peacock Bass was introduce into Singapore water is a native of South America including the Orinoco, Negro and Amazon river basins ie Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. An aggressive fish which preys on smaller native fish, it has been identified as a potential cause for ecological imbalance in its adopted habitats.It is the strongest n most aerobatic fish


 Wu tou yu

 Grey Mullet

 Mugil Cephalus

cantonese: Wu tau, Wu tau tze, Yuen Long fish Hebrew: Kifon gedol hazosh

 is a slow growing fresh water fish, non agressive and therefore vulnerable to over-fishing, has scale, no teeth, thick lips, the upper palate elastic refraction lip, Fish head black 淡水鱼,肉质鲜甜嫩滑 身有点泥味, sold in Giant, wet market, all NTUC Fairprice,Kosher





 Kee fish

Kosher scale, have fine teeth n small fang teeth in the upper lip palate,



 Black telipa


 Japanese fish

Kosher 身体很滑 也有泥味,淡水鱼 fine hair line teeth, have scales, very slimy substance on the  body, when scales remove skin well intact,  fin spiky, strong smell, I spot this fish alive wadding its tail and breath gills bright red.eyes bright clear, Good old days mummy goes to market very early to get fresh and good fish. Now I see it for myself. Me going cook curry fish.

 黄尾鱼, 海利


Redbelly Yellowtail Fusilier

 Caesio cuning family of Caesionidae

 Terumbu Selegi

have scales, very fine hairline teeth, have small tongue, redbelly, often use to make into fish ball, which is more valueable price, Schooling planktivore over reefs; Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka to Vanuatu; southern Japan to northern Australia.

 红笛鲷 (红鱼)


Crimson Snapper

 Lutjanus erythropterus

 Red emperor (giant size), Hokkien - Ang Sai

红笛鲷属暖水性中下层鱼类。栖息于水深30-100米泥沙或岩礁底质海区 sea perches,  Have teeth and scales. The term red jew could refer to either of two lutjanids (Perciformes), the crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus) or the Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus). Kosher




 Malotus villosus


Kosher  A type of smelt fish family less than 20 cm. long but can reach 25 cm., with the males being longer than the females. A pelagic, shoaling fish - widespread in -oceans of the northern hemmiisphere. Shoal close to the surface at depths down to 50 metres and are therefore usually fished by purse seiners. Japanese favorite, Shishamo. Eat the whole fish completely bone edible soft, high cholesterol, high calories and protein. Hypertension Elderly check yr protein intake. Best cook in Fried or grill. Ingredients for deep fry: wheat flour, tempura mix n eggs, Dip fish  with wheat flour -->eggs-->Tempura mix-->Deep fry until Golden Yellow color, NB fish keep dry, oil must be hot bubbling. NTUC Fairprice in frozen boxes, cooking instruction provided. Also try get one in Jason Market Place Raffles city (since 2000) sushi counter have fresh Shishamo



Big eye scad


Selar, atulai, purse-eyed scad, akule, silver scad, steenbrass,

relative fish batu fish (yellowtail scad- Atule mate (Cuvier), kembung, ikan selar kuning (golden band scad), This type of fish moves in massive large Schooling planktivore fish, commonly used for bait, Cheap affordable for daily consumption. taste best when fried - Kosher




 family (Engraulidae), herring; Anchoviella indica

 Ikan bilis, Setipinna taty

Kosher small but common schooling saltwater plankton-feeding fish. salt water fish, true anchovies found in Mediterrean, made into dried Achovies, fish sources, fish stock cube for seasoning. It is also used to produce budu, by fermentation process.Bilis seerti kecil, small fine, sejenis ikan laut yg kecil

 松鱼头 鲤科,鲢亚科,鳙属。俗称:花鲢,胖头鱼,黑鲢,黄鲢,松鱼,鰫鱼,大头鱼


Song Fish

Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis

see picture clips

 Bighead , Bighead carp, Chinese carp, Richardson 1845

 Kosher Four different species of Asian carp, bighead Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, black Mylopharyngodon piceus, grass Ctenopharyngodon idella, and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.. In Singapore we call it Song  fish (Teochew pronounciation) have scaless head, body scale very small, It has unique low set eye, large or broad upturned mouth without barbels. May jump high up the air when disturb by motorboat propeller.  In Singapore we could only see the head fillet only.  Fresh water fish filter feeders, eating mainly zooplankton, ; iaitu ikan gurameh (gurami) ikan kalui, sejenis ikan air tawar, daripada negara Cina Fairprice often sell in fillet, Shop n Save (fish head) have larger song fish prepacked, ABC supermarket also sometimes sell song fish, not prepacked, so you can feel and see the freshness. Teochew favourite cooking claypot rice, never ideal for cooking curry. 潮洲红焖松鱼头,潮洲蒸鱼 , 生长在1级水域,其肉质清淡、鲜香、紧密。营养成分蛋白质为21.2%,脂肪为6.6%,即蛋白质丰富,脂肪适量。无毒

 鱼柳 (fish-O-fillet);鱼柳(red fish/ocean perch); 鲂鱼柳(John Dory)格林兰比目鱼柳(halibut)



 Pollachius; family of Gadidae

 pollack, pollock (Mcdipper) 鱼柳pollock)Latin theragra chalcogramma

fish listed in Kosher listed Usually dark brown/grey/black and grows up to 1 metre. Pollack makes a good alter Cornish to cod,with a lighter texture and sweeter taste. Usually more plentifull in the summer and Autumn use by McDonald Singapore fish fillet. use vegetable oil (soya mixed corn); The fish O fillet is 鱼 柳; Mcdipper is Pollack

 银石 ミゾイサキ [イサキ科]

 Shi Lu


 Pomadasys argenteus??


 Scales, black spot with silver body


イロブダイ、ブダイ科、ベラ亜目; ( 白鼻鸚哥)

 Qing Yi yu

 captain parrotfish, green parrotfish

 family SCARIDAE

Picture clips |

female Qin Yi, teeth, | Mature fish Roe. | Prone-outside view Sliced half | Inside view - Sliced halfI | Close up eye view

Teeth structure

鲭衣鱼Palenose parrotfish Parrotfish Scarus psittacus; SCARIDAE Thai วงศ์ Bayan, Perencong;

Kosher expensive fish, have scales, body greenish yellowish with stripes texture, eye ball black surround greeny pigment, body have layer of  mucous, it is known that the male sleeps on mucous cocoon and large scale tightly overlap easy remove skin remain intact, female have black dot on the middle of dorsal fin and fate black dot on the  operculum. The tail are  straighttail Both male n female have large bluish green 5 teeth, I was told they feeds on coral reef.1-30m、珊瑚斜坡 found in lagoon coral reef Meat very sweet, raw green smell. I would buy the fish inner part remove except the roe and the scale remain not to be remove until I cook it to retain the freshness, so far I can find this sold in wet market.






short single dorsal, have scales, forked caudal fin. center body pinkish, looks similar to a milkfish, the fish belly is hard lining

巨龙鱼 アラパイマ  (現地名 ピラルク Pirarucu) 巨骨舌魚 (海象魚

Ju Long Yu

Giant Dragon Fish; bony tongue fish

Arapaima, Pirarucu, Family Osteoglossidae (including Arapaima gigas, Scleropages formosus, Osteoglossum ferreirai, Heterotis niloticus). ピラルク


Non-Kosher scavenger. Originate from Amazon River In Guyana, One of the biggest and oldest species of scaled large Cosmoid scaled fresh water fish that existed for more than 100 million years ago. It has pelvic fins are well behind the pectoral fins. It  lays their eggs in hollows in the mud of flood plain lakes and ponds just when waters are at their lowest. Flesh meat boneless It has mouth brooders; newly hatched fish take refuge inside the adult's mouth.  A full grown measures about 4 metres in length, weight more than 180 Kg can live up to 100 years. It is air-breathing fish and prefers to live low oxygen content, It can leap out the water to gulp insects, mammals. It owns a second set of teeth embedded in its bony tongue for chewing up mammals, or some species of catfish. It also enjoys eating sushi rice, fish or beefs, fruits. You can find in Big shopping centre, hotels, major commercial centres,Yong Peng Restaurant at the stopover for travellers (West Malaysia Johor Baru), probably believe to bring good fortune. Consider to be endangered species due to overfishing and pollution of water. 魚上綱オステオグロッサム目オステオグロッサム科



Star Snapper

Lutjanus stellatus; subfamily: Lutjaninae;  

Kim lor

Kosher I found ctenoid scales, scales remain intact after scaling, mucous covering on its body, long single dorsal, female fish, Roe orange, body has a white spot  a white spot is just above the lateral line below the first soft ray of the dorsal fin.體色較多變異,以小魚及甲殼類為主食。 

黄金鲹;  黄鹂无齿鲹Gnathanodon speciosus - Golden Trevally -

Huang Jin Can (1) 青岛海, Australia, Queensland

Golden Jack, Golden Trevally.

Latin: Gnathanodon speciosus Forsskål Palometa Amarilla, members of the Carangidae or Jack Family

Jacks,trevallies,scads, Queenfishes, runners, pompanos; Parava Trevallies, scads; Vavuvalaya Pompanos; Kattawa Queenfishes; Pareh.

Kosher salt water fish. It had two type of colours species of fish Golden Trevally and Silver Trevally. Generally it has tiny embeded soft scales invisible to the eye, does not need to remove scale, It mouth similar to the selar fish,toothless a deep silver body that is yellowish on the bottom, fat fleshy lips, and scattered black patches on its sides when mature.  has about 7 black strips largest size have up 11 stripes design on its body like a tiger. All of its soft fins are yellow with the tips of the fok tail caudal fin being black. Large family, and range of sizes; most are predatory on small fishes and crustaceans; many form schools; Juveniles often found in estuaries and brackish waters. Sold in leading wet markets, occasionally NTUC. Way of cooking bake, grill, smoke deep or shallow fry, preferably serve skinless. Best to marinate before frying, dry flesh taste similar to selar fish. beforee frying keep the fish body dry, ideal to get fresh non-freezed fish.鲹科,分布于印度洋珊瑚礁海域,体色金黄并布有七到十一条黑色条纹,有集群性,肉食性,较凶猛

無臂鳎科的鱼, 比目魚; 鲽鱼


See External Characteristic of the  Flatfish

Sole fish, flounder; Flatfish

Pleuronectiformes (right-eyed flounder) or  Heterosomata; family of Soleidae; Bothidae (left eyed flounder), starry flounder both eyes on both sides. Cynoglossidae 100 species of tonguefish

Sole fish, flat fish, types: Bothidae scaldfish (large scales set into skin skin easily torn off - non-kosher), scophthalmidae, turbot, brill, megrimn, Topknot, Pleuronectidae - Halibut, Greenland halibut, Dab, long Rough Dab, Plaice, Lemon Sole n witch. Solidae n solenette.| Turbot, Psetta maxima (left-eyed-no scales) non-kosher, | flounder (Platichthys flesus): see google PIC commercial catch, cycloid scales - Kosher, right hand, tolerant of brackish waters such as estuaries fresh water fish nocturnal and burrowing feeder, tonguefish

两只眼睛长在一边; 双眼同在身体朝上的一侧;  两只眼睛长在一边;它们特别适于在海床上的底栖生活, 身体的朝下一侧为白色 Sole fish live in salt water or fresh water. it feeds on small crustaceans,worms, larve, molluscs, mussel, cockle and other invertebrates.The caudal fin are truncate. Some species of  Sole Fishes have scales on both sides and some species are without scales.The body sides face upward are changeable coloured to blend the enviroment but the body sides on left  lying on sea bed is white in colour scaled flatfish species has scales on both sides. Adult Flatfish does not have swim bladders. There more than 500 species of unique sole fishes, Flatfish actually begin life like symmertical fish with an eye on each side of the head. they have eyes on both sides of the head  in matters  a few days after hatching their body flattened and one eye migrates to the upper side on top of head, as both eyes on the same side. see the amazing transfomation of the flatfish eye development illustration excellent camouflaging and adapable in most enviroment

KOSHER only - It has  "cycloid (round) or "ctenoid" (comblike) read more information on this website  due to the fact it move on seabed check if there is parasite which could be found in internal organs and it can burrow among the flesh of the fish, There are some sole fish does not have scales, some have scales but skin easily tear off are non-kosher . John Dory are non-Kosher

Whitebait; Shirasu; silver fish; Gianchetti (bianchetti)魩仔魚

Alboran Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Australia; China; Italy' UK; New Zealand; Taiwan 台灣


Whitebait is the immature fry of fish, in this case sardines and anchovies fished on the Riviera

Whitebaiting is the activity of catching whitebait. Whitebait are tender and edible, and can be regarded as a delicacy. The entire fish is eaten including head, fins and gut. 一般可分為淡水魚魩仔魚與海水魚魩仔魚兩類. 魩仔魚非指一種魚類,而是數十至數百種類的魚苗之總稱

 KOSHER Whitebait is a collective term for the immature fry of fish, typically between 25 and 50 millimetres long. Such young fish often travel together in schools along the coast, and move into estuaries and sometimes up rivers where they can be easily caught with fine meshed fishing nets

Non-Kosher Fish清淨食物名单 listing

Non Kosher fish list

Information of Kosher 

 Fins and Non-scales fish – Tamei - unclean  

And all that have not fins and scales

in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:

They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcasses in abomination

Leviticus /   11:10

Sheketz = abominable, filth, seriously loathe, idolatry, pride, crafty, merciless killing, detest in character, moral and behavior


Non-Scale fish bodies are protected by a thick layer of mucous. Non-Kosher some additional example of scaleless fish are: snailfish, Atlantic midshipman, whalefish, leather carp, sea lamprey, cabezon, gulper eel, butterfish, mandi catfish, ratfish; you will notice that all this fishes have very weird or devilish or spooky look, skin thin and tears easily, moutache at the mouth, spiky fins look features. This categories of fishes are usually design to clean our sea bed, sea enviroment, scavenger, meat tearing marine fishes, blood thirst (some sharks), hide n devour its preys, usually long slender slim or fast swimmers and have aggressive natures. The scriptures teaches that they are not fit for human consumption.



Bai du yu

Streaked rabbitfish

Siganus javus

Hokkien-Peh Tor, cantonese -Lai Mang Yu

Non-Kosher 白肚鱼在过年时最鲜美 Non-scale fish, thin and smooth skin, best in Lunar new year season, often have egg roe at the Lunar New Year season, a sign of good luck and  fertility

带鱼(带鱼属、带鱼科 牙带、白带鱼、刀鱼、鳞刀鱼、柳带、裙带、脚带、青棕带、带条鱼

Dai yu

ribbonfish  Hairtail, Cutlassfish (silver eel), Bandfish Forskal;

Trichiurus haumela; Trichiurus lepturus; Perciformes

 Japanese:TACHIUO 大刀魚(SAABBRU 長劍,SABITACH大刀, (HAHUNAGI)白長劍等; Korea: 갈치

Non-Kosher,肉食性魚類,性情凶猛, 头窄长而侧扁,前端尖突。两颌牙发达而尖锐。眼大、位较高,眼间隔平坦、中间微凹。体表光滑,鳞退化成表皮银膜,全身呈富有光泽的银白色,背部及背鳍、胸鳍略显青灰色。背鳍长,起点于鳃孔后上角沿背部齐长,臀鳍不明显,只有鳍棘刺尖外露,无腹鳍。帶魚含蛋白質、脂肪質、鈣質、磷、鐵、維他命 A,與碘質極之豐富Origin from China,Body has silvery eel-like structure and its length about 1.5m.the dorsal fin is being joined together until tail part continuously. large teeth, aggressive, scavenger, body belt like structures moves like an eel. Non-scales, silver white metallic, smooth and thin skin can be easily damage, contain protein, fat quality, body during pregnancy, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A and iodine extremely rich sold in wet market 


Xian gong lu

Leather Jacket Fish



Non-Kosher Often head is remove, skin whitish grey, very smooth n does not have scales. The skin are easily damage skin after cooking


jin chang yu

Snubnose Pompano Trachinotus blochii; family of Carangidae Golden Pomfret 属于热带鱼; 是一种较为名贵的鱼类,性情温顺,能水产养,肉嫩汁浓红烧金鲳鱼head broadly rounded, spines very short body silvery, skin more tougher than Silver Pomfret, fins, dorsal golden yellow, non-aggressive mild gentle, steam cook fish, Large family, and range of sizes; most are predatory on small fishes and crustaceans; many form schools; Juveniles often found in estuaries and brackish waters. Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 3287) to the Marshall Islads and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Australia; throughout Micronesia. See a giant size of 10.88 Kg  golden pomfret.

 秋鯖 (japanese)


Saba fish; Scomber japonicus



Fishy and oily, can be grilled, v, Japanese favourite, Mackerel family, sold in NTUC fairprice as frozen fish. contain metallic sheen, fast swimer school of fish. Some may consider as kosher as it contradicts  the statement that in order the fish to kosher it must be in the family of cycloid and ctenoid scale.


Xi dao yu, bao dao yu

Wolf Herring

Chirocentrus Dorab

Ikan Parang, Sai Toh yu. Batang

Non-Kosher Look like a parang, lower mouth palate more protruding, very aggressive predator, silvery metallic thin skin, found in most market, use for fried fillet, cost price affordable, meat deteoriate very quickly be sure to be properly preserve.


Occurring in the Indian Ocean and in the western Pacific to Japan and eastern Australia. In contrast to other herrings, which feed on plankton, wolf herrings are carnivorous, attacking and eating other fish. Their jaws are equipped with fanglike teeth for catching and holding prey. Wolf herrings are a threat to many other species of fish. Batang fish are also made into Dried salted fish.


Ma jiao yu

Spanish Mackerel


Tenggiri-papan Tengiri Batang

 tenggiri have scripts, batang does not have stripes

鱧科 /

Li Ke

Snake Head fish蛇头鱼 

CHANNIDAE ; channa obsura, smooth-breasted snake head (channa orientalis), channa striata brownish, Chevon snakehead (channa striata black) channa argus, channa marulius

Toman, Toman paya, sheng yu, raw fish, Ikan Aruan

 Non-Kosher 这种鱼类因为其头部外形和蛇类非常类似, 因此西方人将之称为“蛇头“.它的个性凶残 还有它是生辰在 淡水里。Snake heads a fresh water fish possess an accessory organ know as Epibranchial respiratory for breathing atmospheric air in oxygen depleted bodies of water. Thus they move on land. Has eye that looks like snake, head like snake, male are very aggressive when on guarding the eggs and young,  to kill it  one has to dash it’s body on the ground, crush its head. In some countries it is unlawful for any one attempt to release any snakehead fish into any river, lake, pond, lagoon or other waterway within the city.In the  Chinese medical view it could help to heal wound fast. Use for cooking porridge.  It has a very aggressive nature. One must wears protective gear when harvesting it  strikes a person on the face or chest, it could cause some bleeding.It has powerful fins that use as limbs. Attack a person when it is hungry. NTUC Fairprice 新加坡职工总会平价合作社, ABC Supermarket also have nice fresh fish early in the morning, wet market sold in Fillet pre-pack weight varies. In hawker food centre they have fried Toman fillet in their menu list. You view  the fish live in the Singapore Science centre or best you visit.Yeo Aquarium, 28, Lim Chu Kang, Lane 6D 6862 6641 see moving on the ground - buy it fresh

乌鳢(鳢 科)

Wu li

Raw fish

Ophicephalus argus

Sheng yu 生鱼




Chang hong cai sha yu (nian yu)

Striped Catfish

Pangasius Hypophthalmus

Thai name Sutchi catfish

Non-Kosher Dark back, silvery light to grey and deep curved belly. Dark grey or black fins and tail. Flat and wide head with low-set eyes and no teeth or whiskers. A very strong fish that refuses to give up. Repeatingly long and tough runs in mid and deep water. Originate from Thailand, Vietnam. Popular demand in Singapore, Fried fish fillet, or grill



Pacific basa

Pangasius bocourti, family Pangasiidae

pacific Dory

Non-Kosher Basa is the common name for members of the species a type of catfish in the family Pangasiidae. .Vietnamese Tra" from Mekong River, also known as Basa, Basa Catfish, Vietnamese Catfish, Vietnamese Basa,  Bocourti, Bocourti Fish, Bocourti Catfish, Pacific Dory, China Sole, White Ruffy, Pangasius, White Pangasius,  Grouper, Pacific Basa Fish, Pacific Basa Fillets, Basser


Li yu

Asian carp

 Cyprinus carpio

Common carp, leather carp

 Invasive Fish Only Feed on Plankton 浮游生物 (ia itu hidupan tumbuhan dan binatang yang terapung-apung di air), an omnivorous feeder that sucks and strains mud from the bottom, and insects and plants from the water surface. does not have teeth, 鲤鱼的营养价值很高,特别是含有极为丰富的蛋白质 (protein),而且容易被人体吸收,利用率高达98%,可供给人体必需的氨基酸 (Amino Acid), Asian Carp ialah sejenis ikan air tawar 淡水魚   It is a  type of fresh water fish. Beware Asian Carp release waters or import are either restriction rule or ban entry in some countries.



Ruvettus pretiosus snake mackerel, NON-KOSHER found in tropical and temperate seas of the world; similar to the silver gemfish; has a smaller mouth and eyes and a lower more jagged first dorsal fin. It is covered with small spiny scales, the scale hard to remove,  there are a row of small pores between each scale row; consume such fish suffered oily diarrhea. The flesh are very oily; although edible it is believe that the oil is a strong intestinal irritant. Often mistaken to be "codfish".


Hoki Fish

macruronus novaezelandiae blue grenadier, hoki, blue hake, New Zealand whiptail, whiptail or whiptail hake,

Non-Kosher is a merluccid hake of the genus Macruronus, found around southern Australia, and New Zealand, at depths of between 10 and 1,000 m. Its length is between 60 and 120 cm. Similar in appearance to the rattails, with large eyes and a very elongate tapering body ending in a pointed tail consisting of the fusing of the second dorsal fin and the anal fin. Has a short spinous first dorsal fin. This fish-eating carnivore has a large mouth containing sharp pointed teeth used to catch and eat lantern fish, its main prey, but crustaceans and squid are also taken. Body colour is pale blue-green above, silver on the sides and belly, and the fins are darker. sold in some Japanese food store, Long John Silver

Absolute unclean shell fish are Non-Kosher

Shellfish, mollusks, lobsters and crabs have spread typhoid and are a source for urticara (a neurotic skin affliction). Not good for human consumption, eat at your own risk, those who are prone to seafood alergic are best avoid such food, if there are rashes on skin best stop and consult a doctor's advise. Sea shell stuff best catch alive then cook immediately, deteoriate shell fish are very toxic could lead to food poisoning eg crab, welk, cockle, clam, scallop, sea cucumber, piddock, razor clam, moon snail, limpet, cowrie, prawn, shrimp lobster, hermit crab, mussel, oyster, winkle, crayfish, painted topshell.

For those who does not keep any dietary commitment. Fresh prawns have shiny shells, firm to touch, head is firmly attached to body. Avoid buying prawns with head loose. Crabs must be bought away and cook alive. Dead crabs can be toxic and food poisoning. Again stress if you have operation, infected wounds, seafood alergic or nursing or breast feeding avoid taking any sea food for a time being until fully recovered.

To learn how to buy fresh seashell food stuff visit this website http://www.ocean.udel.edu/mas/seafood/fresh.html

Why are Sea Cucumber consider Non-Kosher or unclean sea marine animals?

Other fishes - cross breed fish

Flower Horn Fish or Hua Luo Han; hybrid Cichlasoma (scientific name) Perciformes; monster fish. Percoidei Cichlidae, Flower Horn, Flowerhorn, Lump Head Cichlid, Malaysia Rajah Cichlasoma, Hualorhan, Luohan Believed to be a hybrid between Amphilophus citrinellus and Amphilophus trimaculatum first developed in Malaysia around 1996. Feed on Live; snails, fish, earthworms, insects; chopped meat; vegetables; spinach, peas, lettuce; pellets; tablets.an aggressive species which must be kept in a large tank. It was once a popular exotic fish in Singapore in 2001-2. It was once believed to be as feng shui fish, luck draw fish. Now often found abandon in the sea, pond, river. Worthless man made breed fish.

Lessons on Fishes

ISBN 983-41943-8-2 (2006) FIRST EDITION

Learn to eat fish with true scales and fins for a healthy body. Learn the Scriptural way of distinguishing between the edible and non-edible sea creatures. All shellfish, scaleless fish are not appropriate for human consumption. And Elohim created great sea creatures and every sort of fish,… according to their kind,… And Elohim blessed them saying, “Let the fish multiply and fill the oceans,”… And there came evening and there came to be morning, the fifth day.’ Genesis/Beresith 1:21-23

For School children  Fishes at Enchanted learning

Anatomy of fish

Fish species Chart  

Clipart ETC Site Map

The Ocean Conservancy: Home

Chabad kosher hand book

Ocean Fresh International - Fish - saltwater and freshwater

Fish anatomy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Learn how to disecting fishes

Fish dissection pictures done by students

Onekama's Third Graders Watch a Fish Dissection

BioLab Fish Dissection Software


Question about Heavy Metals : Mercury in fish and fillings Mercury in fish is NOT the silvery, metallic form. The chemical form is invisible and present in tiny amounts, mainly in the fatty tissue.

How to determine the sex of the fish?

Sabbath 7th day: Kosher and Non-Kosher  Biblically cleaned / unclean food list

Other Resource

How to Kosher the product in Singapore?

The manufacturer has to do the application

AK Kosher certification services is consulting agency to help companies find the right Kosher certification needs that suite company's financial and general services needs.Asian Kashrus (AK) are stationed in the heart of Asia, namely Singapore. This way they are only a phone call away for you to ask them any question you may have instead of waiting till the wee hours of the night and morning to call the Kosher agency in America or Europe for information.

AK Kosher Certification and Supervision Services

Kosher Consulting Asia

Mailing Address: 37A Hong Kong Street , #02-280. Singapore 059676

Tel: +65 91068634

Fax: +65 62429303

email: info@kashrus.org


Learn more about Cooking oil Berbagai jenis-jenis Minyak Masak - Information are there, You decide which is best

Redang island rendezvous - fish identification guide

Redang island rendezvous - online travel guide to redang and marine conservation (2)

Fishes at Sungei Buloh Nature Park

Floating fish Farm in Singapore The farm is located in the strait between Changi Harbour and Pulau Ubin. The production capacity is some 300 tonnes of table size fish, and in excess of 50 million larvae p.a.

Fish caught at Bedok Jetty Singapore Fish as sport hobby, find out what fish swim to our shores, visit Singapore

Qian Hu Fish Farming - Singapore

Marine Sport Fish identification Pictures

Ocean Sea Zone Division


Ang Mo Kio National Library

Scultz Ken

Fishing Encyclopedia

Worldwide Angling Guide

Ken Schultz





What is Kosher?

Go to Leviticus 11 / Vayikra 11

Go to Deuteronomy 14 / Dvarim 14

Other Food guide

Types of Salt and usage

[JES] Seasoning Sauce and Flavour Enhancer

Indian Spices

Kosher Product list in Singapore Supermarket

Kosher for Messianic Believer



The Torah Truth-Seekers and Messianic Goodnews

Daily Bible Verse

Provided by Christ Notes Bible Search